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The third part of the world subscribed to the authoritarian/ Fascist ideology. The western democracies such as the United States of America, Britain, Australia, France, New Zealand, Canada and other nations were based on an ideology known as liberal democracy. Countries such as Germany and Italy on the other hand were based on the authoritarian/ Fascist ideology even as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) represented the Marxist communist ideology.
Liberal democracy is a political system that attempts to uphold and propagate civil liberties guarding them from interference from government, powerful entities, and institutions in the society. It controls the government’s involvement in matters that affect the citizens politically, morally and economically. This system operates based on four main principles; belief in individual (assuming that an individual is reasonable and moral); belief in reason and progress (assuming growth to be part of humanity); consensual theory of society; and a suspicion of concentrated forms of power (Australia Politics par. 3).
The organization of liberal democracies is such that it defines and limits power, promoting a legitimate government through justice and liberty. In America, the constitution has always been used as a means of limiting power. Other measures put together in an attempt to control power include the separation of major government arms such as judiciary, legislation, and executive. On the other hand, the government requires huge support that it draws from an election system that frequently upholds popular, free and fair elections. Freedom is a fundamental aspect in this system, especially freedom of choice. The capacity to choose from options must be available. Besides that, the system must uphold respect for civil and political freedom. Certain countries such as Britain have a slightly different kind of democracy; it is a constitutional monarchy. In this system
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This means that even though it does not comply with Puritan teachings of strictly following the rules and regulations of religion, it does not completely negate it either. In simple words, a noble salvage is a neutral person who could be an atheist or belonging to a religion that he believes in but is not obsessed with it.
This balance results in various implications regarding electoral procedures, rule of law, structure of the government and economic concerns and other significant issues. In society, change is inevitable in government relationships and arrangements and throughout the political world.
18th Century of Enlightenment & Revolution Introduction The eighteenth (18th) century was marked by major enlightenment events like the death of Louis XIV of France and the beginning of the French revolution. Philosophers of Enlightenment like Montesquieu advocated for the separation of the powers of the government while Rousseau was of the view that man is born free and citizens should be free to choose their government.
The political ideology aimed at creating a classless and moneyless society and economy. The political ideology therefore propagated for communal ownership of assets among other resources in the society1. The ideas of communism created a society in which everyone was equal and the means of production collectively owned by the society.
Islamism, the belief that personal, cultural, political, and social life should be guided by Islamic ideals, was becoming very influential all over the Arab world, particularly after the Iranian Revolution in 1979 (Moaddel, 2005). However, the deterioration and ultimate downfall of the Soviet Union, the former supporter of Arab nationalist governments, the strengthening hegemonic involvement and presence of the United States in the region, and the intensifying movement of Israel into the region, have wreaked major havoc to Arab nationalism and unity.
The city emerged as the theater for a series of major battles known as the New York Campaign during the American Revolutionary War. New York City was the capital of the United States until 1790.In the early 1800s, New York City was thriving due to economic power; the state soon acquired the nickname, "The Empire State."
By contrast, in economies where property is secure because the constitution restricts rulers, or because the ruling lite is made up of merchants, prosperity and growth are expected (Ibid).
This theory of cities growing because of merchants' free trading of their money rather than burying or concealing them has been propounded in earlier times by Adam Smith (cited in De Long and Shleifer 1992).
French Revolution during 18th century is event that shook France between 1787 and 1799 which took its violent form when the Controller General of Finances, Charles-Alexandre de Calonne proposed to design the reform to eliminate budget deficit by increasing the taxation of privileged classes by summoning the assembly by ‘notables’ like prelates.
inning of 19th century, most of the European societies, particularly French society were facing many social and cultural changes as well as many rising rational thoughts. Ideologies of communism and socialism influenced all facets of European societies. Later on these emerging
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