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the modern era, in the circumstance that inquisition to the traditional authority in the west and discovery that gave way to the possibilities of renaissance in Europe and Asia. The enlightenment has been the result of scientific revolution, where the intellectuals have been highly impressed with the deed of scientific revolution and the philosophers influenced by the revolutionary thinkers of the 17th century in the ambience of intellectual darkness of the middle age.
During the 18th century there was so many developments in all fields around the world. Great civilizations emerged in America, Europe, Asia and Africa. “The Enlightenment was the product of a vast set of cultural and intellectual changes in Europe during the 1500s and 1600s—changes that in turn produced the social values that permitted the Enlightenment to sweep through Europe in the late 1600s and 1700s” (The Enlightenment (1650-1800) par. 10). On account of this, Europeans gave up the antique scientific beliefs. As a result of expedition and enlargement of overseas empires, there was so many political and cultural changes. Another important feature of the 17th century was negligence to the loyalty of traditional religious authority. The concept of monarchy was abandoned in this period after thirty years of war, which occurred in Germany. Also, so many philosophical thoughts have emerged such as Individualism, Relativism and Rationalism – these three concepts proclaim the idea which spread the enlightenment. Overall, such unique ideas and philosophies have been responsible for man’s growth in all levels.
There were so many great individuals who contributed to the cause of enlightenment. Most prominent among them were Gallilio Gallili, Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Isaac Newton, Baruch Spinoza, John Comenius and Hugo Grotius. Gallili was an Italian astronomuor, who supported the sun-centerd Copernican model of the solar system and displeased the Catholic Church.
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The U.S relations with Russia after Cold War Twenty years have passed since the end of the cold war, and new generations of Americans and Russians have appeared, and most of them do not possess the memory of the previous conflicts that had taken place. After September 11, the Russians and the Americans have a common enemy, “Al-Qaeda”, and mutual trust was developed between the two countries.
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