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Protestant leaders in Bohemian crown soon formed alliances with the neighboring states which were also facing religious conflicts such as France and Sweden. Being in the center of Europe Bohemian crown had the advantage of using its many economic, political and religious linkages to gather an army.
During late 15th to early 16th century Catholicism and Lutheranism prevailed in central Europe while Calvinism was also spreading across Germany but Augsburg refused to accept it as a religion. Moreover, Bohemians were mainly Protestants while their new rulers i.e. Habsburgs, were Catholics. Protestants were often repressed by the Roman Catholic kings. Letter of Majesty by the king Rudolf in 1608 provided a vast freedom for the Protestant practitioners and authority to the Church to control activities of Calvinism.
Habsburg is a Catholic family of Swiss origin. Its domination in Europe began in 1273 and was characterized by military conquests as well as strategically formed marital alliances which gained political advantages to the family example, the double marriage agreement which enabled Habsburgs to rule Austria, Bohemia and Hungary in unite. The Czech lands fell into the ruling of Habsburgs in 1526 as the Bohemian Diet elected Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, as the king.
In 1546 German Protestants assisted by Bohemian noble men started riots against Ferdinand’s brother Charles V. Ferdinand responded by killing Protestants leaders, exerting royal control over Bohemia, removing privileges from the noble, taxing and punishing the people.
In 1575 Habsburg ruler, Maximilian II refused authorizing Bohemian Confession which would have formed alliance between Protestants, Utraquists and Bohemian Brethren while preventing the war from taking place. Letter of Majesty was openly violated by the proceeding Habsburg rulers especially king Ferdinand II.
On May 23rd 1618 infamous
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This war had no apparent beginning or motive, but it mostly took a religious dimension where Protestants and Catholics tried to outdo each other in the religious Roman Empire. It also shook the political landscape thereby shifting the balance of power in the region.
The essential feature of such pieces of art was their theme of building the sentimental touch of stories based on the heroics or horrors of wars. A majority of such visual presentations in the movie format belong to the documentary genre. The movie ‘Theatre of War’ is a piece of film editing excellence from the director of the movie John Walter.
Historically, the war began in 1618 and lasted thirty years, as suggested by its name, only to end in 1648. The duration that the war took, with a high level of confidence, may hint to the level of damage that occurred throughout central Europe at the time.
The quest for reforms in the Catholic Church spearheaded Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1564) and John Calvin (1509-1564), saw the rise of religious schism, among the Catholics, Protestants and Anabaptists. There were frequent struggles over religious beliefs, and that culminated into the thirty years of war from 1618 to 1648.
According to Kenneth Marcus (2007) of the University of La Verne, few wars throughout the history of Europe have left quite as large a scale of influence and destruction as the Thirty Years War (p. 1): "Many contemporaries felt that God had ceased to care, that their suffering, anxiety, and hardship were for naught, and that the end of days was near" (Marcus, 2007, p.1).
However, there was one more development that took place within this early modern period of European history and which would influence the future course of events perhaps in the most profound way. This was the emergence and expansion of the Protestant Reformation, a powerful form of social protest which turned from a striving for reformation of religious institutions, initiated by Martin Luther, a professor of theology at Wittenberg University in Saxony, into a factor that profoundly influenced political situation within the Holy Roman Empire (Asch, 1997, p.188).
Indeed, what began as a religious struggle, soon after generated considerable influence in society and politics. The Reformation, instituted by the brilliant theologians of their day such as Luther, Calvin and Zwingli, bore hints of revolutionary ideals which called for transformations not only within the church but also within political and social bounds.
According to the research findings it can therefore be said that Lucille’s masterful artistry is present throughout this poem. It expresses her quest to find her true self, break free from social and personal restrictions and to realize her true dreams. That is what “The Thirty-Eighth Year” conveys.
The author states that war outcomes, both long-term and short-term, can be quite different for countries that fail to embrace peace. The views on the possible causes of war between nations, in a country, or across communities are often opposing. The history knows a number of wars that were documented across the world.
Moreover, supporters of this policy argued that the policy will ensure that welfare recipients are accountable for the help they receive (Schaberg 568). However, this policy is largely irrelevant as it unfairly assumes that welfare recipients
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