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The thirty year war - Essay Example

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Armed alliances of the Roman Catholics’ such as Roman Empire and Spanish Empire fought against the Protestant states such as Bohemia, Palatinate and England. The…
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Download file to see previous pages Protestant leaders in Bohemian crown soon formed alliances with the neighboring states which were also facing religious conflicts such as France and Sweden. Being in the center of Europe Bohemian crown had the advantage of using its many economic, political and religious linkages to gather an army.
During late 15th to early 16th century Catholicism and Lutheranism prevailed in central Europe while Calvinism was also spreading across Germany but Augsburg refused to accept it as a religion. Moreover, Bohemians were mainly Protestants while their new rulers i.e. Habsburgs, were Catholics. Protestants were often repressed by the Roman Catholic kings. Letter of Majesty by the king Rudolf in 1608 provided a vast freedom for the Protestant practitioners and authority to the Church to control activities of Calvinism.
Habsburg is a Catholic family of Swiss origin. Its domination in Europe began in 1273 and was characterized by military conquests as well as strategically formed marital alliances which gained political advantages to the family example, the double marriage agreement which enabled Habsburgs to rule Austria, Bohemia and Hungary in unite. The Czech lands fell into the ruling of Habsburgs in 1526 as the Bohemian Diet elected Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, as the king.
In 1546 German Protestants assisted by Bohemian noble men started riots against Ferdinand’s brother Charles V. Ferdinand responded by killing Protestants leaders, exerting royal control over Bohemia, removing privileges from the noble, taxing and punishing the people.
In 1575 Habsburg ruler, Maximilian II refused authorizing Bohemian Confession which would have formed alliance between Protestants, Utraquists and Bohemian Brethren while preventing the war from taking place. Letter of Majesty was openly violated by the proceeding Habsburg rulers especially king Ferdinand II.
On May 23rd 1618 infamous ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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