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It is the term that could be applied to the action of John Augustus when, in 1852, he bailed out an offender who was convicted for a conduct of misdemeanor. Howard Abadinsky (2009) narrated that he successfully proved before the Court that an offender has a chance to be rehabilitated and to become a good member of the society once again. In his first experience, Augustus saw in the offender the promise of behavior change. He also introduced investigation, which he carried out before he handled a case. Some features of his investigation process remained to be a part of the modern probation process. Augustus investigated the character, the age and influence of people he helped because he will be their guardian during the probation period. He also kept records of each offender which he surrendered to the court when probation period was over. This helped the judge to pass on a final decision.
Maurice Vanstone (2009) discussed in his book that John Augustus was the first man to volunteer to become a probation officer, although at that time, probation was not yet established. His humanitarian motives could not be doubted because he worked for free. Although friends assisted him and donations poured in, his business as a shoemaker was eventually affected. He was not a lawyer, but he believed on the purpose of the law, that is for him is to “reform criminals, and to prevent crime, and not to punish maliciously, or from spirit of revenge”. His first focus was on drunkards but later on moved to other cases.
He handled 2,000 cases of men, women, young and adult alike, with only 10 persons who jumped out of probation in all of his life. His crusade was not completely hassle-free because prosecutors, clerks of courts and policemen did not agree with him, since these men received a fee for cases disposed of by the Court. Thus, we see here professional jealousy, or corruption,
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During this period, a personal supervisor attempts to support them to uphold a good conduct of behavior (Goodwill Trading Co., Inc., n.d). According to Mcscs.jus.gov (2011), probation is a court disposition that authorizes an offender to live at the large community but must follow the laid conditions that are in the probation order.
Paroles are rewards allowed in a prisoner’s sentence by reducing his prison sentence if the prisoner demonstrates good conduct when living his sentence. Probation, on the other hand, is a an addition to the prisoners’ chargers which requires the prisoner to report to a probation officer even when he has fulfilled his sentence.
In the summer of 13 BCE, the Roman senate issued a decree calling for the construction of an outdoor altar complex commemorating the emperor Augustus’s successful campaigns in Spain and Gaul and his return to Rome in that year. The Ara Pacis Augustae, or Altar of Augustan Peace, was completed in 9 BC(1).
If the nature of the crime is not very serious, the court may let off the person with a fine or a warning. Otherwise, a verdict of incarceration (the period) depending on the seriousness of the crime will be the result. In cases of longer terms, the prisoner need not spend the entire period inside the prison.
Evidently, community corrections program entails all non-incarcerating correctional sanctions that are applied on an offender in order to reintegrate him or her back to the community. The significance for community corrections is drawn from the need for options to jail, prison and or overcrowding of incarceration centers.
John Augustus a Bostonian was the first probation officer to institute these disciplines as an alternative to incarceration.
This is a discretionary model whose main goal of probation is to specialize in rehabilitation as well as high surveillance and punishing offenders.
Legally, a person on probation is required to follow certain court determined rules. More often than not, such a person is placed under the supervision of a probation officer to ensure that the rules are being followed by the former.
In 1841, John Augustus, a cobbler living
There are quite a number of types and nature of probations and they vary in their individual terms and conditions and with the kinds of crimes and cases in which they are involved. They include pretrial, informal, supervised/formal, community control, shock,
According to the author, effective programs are those that successfully bar and lead the youth away from delinquent behaviors. Greenwood gives an example of home-visiting programs that focuses pregnant teens and their vulnerable
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