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Eventually, most of the farmers sold their lands and became tenant farmers.
Periodically, the tenant farmers and groups refused to pay rent and rebelled. The nobles in the ruling class reacted by deploying well trained warriors known as Samurai to restore order4. The Samurai gradually became an important part of the Heian era of Japan since they were called upon very often by nobles who were often resident in Kyoto to suppress rebellions and regain control in the areas outside Kyoto.
Kamakura Era (1185 – 1333): After Emperor Toba died in 1156, he had no clear successor so there were wars between two factions that laid claim to the imperial throne5. In the wars which got to its peak between 1180 and 1185, numerous Samurai groups rose to fight for the various factions in the conflict. Eventually, Minamoto no Yoritomo came out victorious. Minamoto no Yoritomo was given the title Sei-i Taishogun in 1192 and this set the stage for the establishment of the Shogun dynasty6.
Minamoto moved the capital from Kyoto to Kamakura. He unified numerous Samurai groups and this set the stage for military rule which saw the Samurai gaining more autonomy and control over different communities as direct nobles7. Minamotos success in exercising control over the various warrior groups enabled him to centralize and unify the political system of the country.
Ashikaga Era (1336 – 1573): After the death of Minamoto, his descendants continued to rule as Shoguns in Japan until the European arrival8. As the Shoguns were ruling the country, the Emperor continued to live in isolation as the figurehead and representatives of the Shinto gods that he descended from. Although the people of Japan revered the Emperor of Japan, the power and control of the land after 1192 reverted to the warrior class.
In 1333, two imperial lineages, Go-Sago and Go-Daigo attacked Kamakura and destroyed the Shogunate9. Ashikaga was a
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