Bacterial Cell Surface Tension Attachment and Implications for Bioremediation
Bacterial Cell Surface Tension Attachment and Implications for Bioremediation
7 pages (1750 words)
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... Cell Surface Tension Attachment and Implications for Bioremediation ABSTRACT The bacterial cell surface attachment of two bacterial species, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, was assayed by means of bacterial aggregation in different solutions. These included full strength liquid broth with and without 10% v/v glucose, ½ strength nutrient broth and PYE also with and without 10% vv glucose. All the suspensions were phosphate buffered in seeking to establish bacterial affinity to hexadecane and polystyrene surfaces. The bacterial microbes showed relatively higher affinity to hexadecane materials compared to their affinity to polystyrene surfaces that were tested. There was no significant relati...
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Mycobacterium Leprae and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium Leprae and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
4 pages (1000 words)
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... Mycobacterium leprae & Mycobacterium tuberculosis Type of Assignment Here Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Course Number Course Title By Your Name City May 2012 Mycobacterium leprae & Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are the major pathogens that belong to the genus, Mycobacterium. M. tuberculosis, first discovered by Robert Koch in 1882, is one of the devastating pathogens and causes human diseases that are the source of both death and prolonged disability. An estimate of 1.7 million deaths were reported by WHO caused by tuberculosis (TB) in the year 2004 (St Georgiev, 2009, p. 103). This highlights...
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Biology - Wood Frog
Biology - Wood Frog
4 pages (1000 words)
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... Wood Frog The wood frog is a small (about 2 frog of moist woodlands which has a range of most of northern North America (“Wood Frogs”). It is mostly found in: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon (“Frog Watch”). In this way, they are the most widely distributed amphibian in North America; even reaching beyond the Arctic Circle ("Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) in Manitoba") its scientific name is Rana Sylvatica. Furthermore, it has very attractive characteristics that are usually coupled and are similar to other Chordates, Amphibians and Anurans etc. For example, it ...
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The Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell
The Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell
8 pages (2000 words) , Download 1
... of the Eukaryotic Cell Introduction In the Proterozoic Era, 2.5 billion to 544 million years ago, the atmospheric level of oxygen increased to 15% due to oxygen producing cyanobacteria. The levels of oxygen in the atmosphere produced a fatal environment in which anaerobic organisms needed to evolve methods of coping with the presence of oxygen. These organisms evolved to be the organisms know today as eukaryotes. Direct filiation is the classical view of the evolution of eukaryotic organisms. This theory states that all organisms derived directly from a unique ancestral population by the accumulation of single step mutations, and that the same mutational mechanisms known to operate in the evolut...
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Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish)
Turritopsis nutricula (Immortal jellyfish)
2 pages (500 words) , Download 5
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... nutricula (Immortal jellyfish) Phylogeny or the evolutionary relationships of Turritopsis nutricula is a that requires further research (Schuchert 315-369). The basic scientific classification is as follows: Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Cnidaria Class – Hydrozoa Order – Hydroida Family – Clavidae Genus – Turritopsis Species – T. nutricula Turritopsis nutricula belongs to the family of Clavidae and is a hydrozoa. The size of a sexually mature jellyfish is about 4.5 to 5 mm in diameter. They move and eat using their tentacles. Younger Turritopsis nutricula have about 8-24 tentacles and the mature adults may have as much as 90 tentacles. When these are free floating they have a bell shaped transparent...
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Theory of Evolution and Evidence for Natural Selection
Theory of Evolution and Evidence for Natural Selection
8 pages (2000 words)
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... of Evolution and evidence for natural selection The term “evolution” in biology refers to the process through which plants, animals and otherliving organisms changed over time. It is the foundation for modern biological theories. By examining layers of rock and soil which are also known as “strata”, researchers have found fossils which are evidence of plants and animals which lived long ago but are not found anywhere in the world today. By examining these fossils closely, it has been discovered that the greater the age of the fossil, the more is it different from the living beings found today. More recent is a fossil, more is the resemblance to present day plants or animals. This is perhaps the...
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Naccobus
Naccobus
8 pages (2000 words) , Download 1
... Nacobbus Essay The paper that is being analyzed is about Nacobbus. Several studies and sources of information have been used throughout the work to discuss various aspects of the topic. The sources that have been used are from various geographical locations throughout the world so as to help completely analyze and study Nacobbus. All the sources that have been used in the paper have greatly helped in providing the needed literature and information. This paper will, however, focus on what can be considered the ten most important sources of information and studies that have been used by the authors so as to completely analyze the topic of Nacobbus. The sources will be picked from the list that has...
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Physiological and psychological traits of two primates
Physiological and psychological traits of two primates
5 pages (1250 words)
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... Head: analysis paper Analysis Paper Teacher’s ID Introduction This observational activity was conducted in Fort Worth Zoo in Texas during which physiological and psychological traits of two primates were studied and compared. Male Gorilla The first primate selected for this activity was male Western lowland Gorilla. This primate belongs to hominidae family of genus Gorilla whereas the name of the species was G. Gorilla. The particular primate being studied was having brownish grey coat of hair. However, body hairs were not visible on the face, hands and feet of this animal. He also had silver grey hair as well on his bak which showed that this gorilla was in his late 20s. Same hair color was visible ...
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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report on the disease Cryptosporidiosis
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report on the disease Cryptosporidiosis
5 pages (1250 words)
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... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report on the disease Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis is a disease of the intestines caused by a parasite known as Cryptosporidium. This is a protozoan parasite which causes illness by infecting the intestinal and respiratory epitheliums of humans, reptiles and mammals (Levine, 1973). This parasite was first identified in the gastric glands of mice back in 1907, but its pathogenecity was not established until the late 1970’s when it was acknowledged as being one of the major causes of enterocolitis and diarrhea in both calves and humans (Tzipori, p. 884-886). Majority of the Cryptosporidium species belong to the Eimeria genre and mostly resemble entero-cocci...
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The Habitat and Productivity of the Morel Mushroom
The Habitat and Productivity of the Morel Mushroom
5 pages (1250 words)
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... Running head: Morel Mushroom. Morel Mushroom Large commercial crops of morels are harvested annually from montane coniferous forests of the northwestern United States. Although some morels produce fruit annually in non-disturbed forests, tree mortality and soil disturbance, others fruit copiously in areas experiencing ?re and insect infestations. Many forest managers currently use thinning and prescribed ?re to re-create forest conditions that existed before the advent of wide-scale ?re suppression; this makes opportunities exist to promote morel crops while achieving ?re control and timber production goals. However, our limited understanding of morel productivity, diversity, and ecology hinders...
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Unit 5 Individual Project Biology
Unit 5 Individual Project Biology
5 pages (1250 words)
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... Biology Project Introduction. The animals are taxonomically ified based on the similarities and differences and of their traits. If the critical traits looked for are known, it is possible to easily separate any animal into a specific taxonomic category. These taxonomic categories include Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species or Specific Epithet. For instance, humans are classified as follows in the taxonomic categories. (Bernard, & Mark, 1999). Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens Scientific name: Homo sapiens Response to Part 1: In th...
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Implementing & Managing Change
Implementing & Managing Change
2 pages (500 words)
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... & Managing Change The problem of resistance to change lies at the heart of most change programs, but it is especially critical where planned or imposed change is envisaged. Training staff and top managers will be the main groups resisted the change processes. It is possible to assume that most of them do not have computer skills and knowledge to train other employees and do not want to spend time and efforts on new facilities. Also, some employees can resist this change afraid of lack of skills and knowledge to master new software programs. Most individuals prefer working life to proceed according to accustomed norms. In this case, the resistance to change can be overcome by consultation and...
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A banana
A banana
2 pages (500 words)
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... A Banana Available throughout the year in tropical countries, bananas come in different varieties, shapes, and colors. Mistakenly referred to as a tree, bananas are the fruit of an herb that has grown from a rhizome, stretched through a thick stem, and developed flowers (“banana”). A banana’s variety of uses makes it one of the most valued crops in the world. The fruit’s nutritional value and relatively low price make it an attractive export product for countries in Southeast Asia, South America, and East Africa (Morton 37). This essay describes the taxonomy, characteristics, varieties, and food uses of banana. Bananas come from the “genus Musa of the family Musaceae” (“banana”), and the seedless, e...
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Brassica
Brassica
1 pages (250 words) , Download 1
... 2 November Brassica Oxford was the first to approve the fingerprinting orDNA profiling in 1984. Since then, people all over the world have become aware of the fact that each of them has a unique structure of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (Steel KMMRB, 2004). This powerful discovery provides doctors with an objective means of identifying people. DNA of different animals, plants as well as humans has been frequently studied in the past few decades in different fields that include but are not limited to the molecular archaeology, identification of genetic diseases, and investigations pertinent to the forensic science paternity (WUMPAAY, 2007). AFLP is the method which is employed for the DNA...
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Zoo Species Project
Zoo Species Project
7 pages (1750 words)
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... of the The zoo species project Zoology is a branch of science that deals with the study of the animal species around the globe. The scientists specializing in studying zoology are called zoologists. The zoological departments in various organizations around the globe have made significant attempts to study different animals by classifying them into smaller units and sub- units ranging from the largest taxonomic groups called the Kingdoms to the smallest sub- divisions referred to as the species. Species are the smallest taxonomic division in biological classifications and is the level of classification with which an organism is identified as a distinct living or non- living organism over the earth’s ...
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Science Plant Study and Animal Study
Science Plant Study and Animal Study
6 pages (1500 words)
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... - Plant Study and Animal Study Science - Plant Study and Animal Study Titus Rock Manickam Order No. 207712 29 February 2008 Science - Plant Study and Animal Study Part I: Plant Study - Grevillea robusta - Australian Silver Oak Family, Genus and Species Grevillea robusta, commonly known as the Silk, Silky oak, or Australian Silver oak, belongs to the Proteaceae family. The proteaceae family is subdivided into two classes, one being the grevilleoideae (G-oides), and the other proteoideae (P-oides). The two classes are further divided into fourteen clans. The genus is Grevillea, one of 360 species of evergreen flowering plants. Grevillea robusta tree The Grevillea robusta i...
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Microbes and Us
Microbes and Us
2 pages (500 words)
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... AND US Rumen Bacteria: Prevotella ruminicola TAXONOMY Prevotella ruminicola Synonym Bacteroides ruminicola Lineage: Domain Bacteria Phylum Bacteriodetes Class Bacteroidia Order Bacteroidales Family Prevotellaceae Genus Prevotella Species ruminicola (HAMAP) MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS P. ruminicola are Gram-negative non motile rods (0.8-1 by 0.8-30). They are either pleomorphic or coccobacilli with slightly tapered and rounded ends (Hobson and Stewart, 15). Cells are usually encapsulated, arranged as singles or in pairs. Colonies on the surface of cultures appear smooth, entire, convex, opaque and light buff colored. Deeply situated colonies are larger and lenticular (Bryant et al., 18). Electron...
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Infectious Diseases and the Immune System
Infectious Diseases and the Immune System
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... Cough Whooping Cough Role of the Immune System and the pathogenesis of whooping cough The immune system develops antibodies to the disease-causing bacteria after the vaccine is introduced into the body. The inactivated Bordetella pertussis bacteria react by diminishing chances for evolution of the disease. Pathogenesis includes the presence of three major virulence factors namely toxins, hemolysins, and adhesins. The pertussis toxin causes the disruption of the phagocytic activity in the respiratory system. Pertactin is the virulence factor that enhances the adhesion capabilities to tracheal epithelial cells. Filamentous hemagglutinin is also a factor responsible for the bacterium’s adherence to th...
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Assignment3
Assignment3
1 pages (250 words)
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... What is the purpose of a public garden? The purpose of public garden is to assists with preserving trees in the campus arboretum, introducing new plants and promoting biodiversity, providing guidelines for sustainable tree care and landscape management, documenting tree histories (every tree is numbered), and providing tools and programs to educate students and the public about sustainable urban horticulture. Also it assists you to understand the special role of “Plants and Your World”, this exercise will guide you in learning about the Land Grant Mission, the synergy existing between public gardens and land grant schools. You will also learn how to use the Campus Arboretum website to locate any of...
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Spalting wood history
Spalting wood history
20 pages (5000 words)
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... the 20th century, the use and knowledge of spalted wood was undermined due to the effects of Industrial Revolution. The revival of popularity of spalting that can be seen currently was driven by the need to return to a commodity that is ‘less manufactured’. In keeping spalting alive, the Arts and Crafts movement, both in Europe and the United States an important role even if it depended on an artist’s interest. The movement based its ideas on going back to unique styles of crafting in Europe and the aesthetics role in decorative arts in the USA, therefore maintaining the use of spalted wood in wood design. Although there was a reduction in use of splated wood in art and craft between the mid-16th a...
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Class Poll - a species value 7
Class Poll - a species value 7
1 pages (250 words)
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... Affiliation Poll - a species value Biodiversity is all about life variations in an ecosystem. Ecosystem is a complex relationship between organic and inorganic elements. Every element has a role to play towards the sustainability of the ecosystem. In this case, the relationship between kudzu and goats will form the basis of the discussion. Kudzu belongs to a Pueraria genus in pea family of Fabaceae and Faboideae subfamily. It is a climbing plant found in Asia and Pacific Islands. Kudzu traps light energy for photosynthesis therefore is a producer. Goats feed on it to obtain food. Kudzu also prevents soil erosion hence conserve soil in an ecosystem. Being a legume, it enriches the soil with nitroge...
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Dichotomus key gram postive bacteria coccus
Dichotomus key gram postive bacteria coccus
1 pages (250 words)
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... first confirm that the unidentified bacterial species is a gram-positive one, or it has a thick peptidoglycan layer that absorbs the crystal violet stain during the gram staining test. This is because unlike other common bacteria such as Eschericia, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella, Staphylococcus and Micrococcus bacteria are gram-positive. It is also during this initial test that we can also check the shape of the bacteria being identified. We know that Staphylococcus and Micrococcus are circular in shape, unlike the gram-(+) Bacilli that is more elongated and rod-like in shape. However, so is the gram-(+) Streptococcus and Enterococcus. In fact, they are collectively known as the gram-(+)...
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Australopithecus Sediba: The Early Homo Species
Australopithecus Sediba: The Early Homo Species
1 pages (250 words)
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... Australopithecus sediba- The Early Homo Species The discovery of the two partial skeletons of a hitherto unclassified species of hominid, called Australopithecus sediba from a cave at Malapa site in South Africa is a unique find in the sense that it extends much missing information as to the physical evolution of Homo sapiens. As the primary focus of Physical Anthropology is to trace and explain the development and ancestry of Homo species in context to other primates, the research under consideration is of immense relevance to this discipline. This recently documented species besides being an upright walker, shares many other prominent physical traits with...
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Malaria
Malaria
1 pages (250 words)
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... Broadly speaking, malaria is one of the most pervasive diseases affecting world cultures. The disease occurs as direct result of mosquito infection. Specifically, the disease occurs in humans as they are affected by eukaryotic protists from the Plasmodium genus (Packard 2007). While malaria occurs through the world, its most prevalent areas of occurrence emerge in sub-tropical regions, particularly in the Americans, sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia. The predominance of occurrences in these areas is due to the manifestation of swampland and high mosquito populations that carry and spread the disease. There are many notable symptoms of malaria. In these regards, the most prevalently occurring symptoms are ...
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The evolutionary development of maize
The evolutionary development of maize
4 pages (1000 words)
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... Evolutionary Development of Maize Many researchers including Zeder claim that maize might have originated from a large wild plant referred to as teosinte which was classified under the genus Euchleana1. In relation to his claim, it is apparent that maize was probably domesticated from the plant teosinte. The diversity of maize is linked to infection of genes that resulted from Tripsacum, a related genus to Euchleana. Despite this claim, research carried on maize and teosinte showed that there was a significant variation between the two plants. According to Zeder, the variation might have been as a result of little chromosomal variation between the two plants2. In support of this assertion, the...
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Mucicarmine
Mucicarmine
4 pages (1000 words)
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... Mucicarmine Q and Obtaining of Mucicarmine Dye Mucicarmine dye finds use in staining of mucin cells for visualization histologically. Though the use of the dye declined relatively, mucicarmine is still a reliable and effective dye used in cancer diagnosis. The dye is more effective in to staining mucins that have lower pH values, majorly those found in the stomach and the intestines (Myers, 2009). Mucicarmine dye is also applicable in the identification of Cryptococcus neoformans. The target molecule for the dye in cancer diagnosis is Mucopolysachrides located in tissue sections. During staining in the process of identifying carcinoma, mucicarmine usually turn red for positive results. The end red co...
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Does specialization must lead to an evolutionary dead end
Does specialization must lead to an evolutionary dead end
7 pages (1750 words)
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... Contents I.INTRODUCTION 3 II.EVIDENCES FROM FLORAL PLANTS 4 III.EVIDENCES FROM NON-FLORAL PLANTS 6 IV. EVIDENCES FROM PARASITES 6 V.EVIDENCES FROM INSECTS’ HABITAT 9 VI.EVIDENCE FROM MAMMALS (GIANT PANDA) 9 VII.POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF A SPECIALIST BECOMING A GENERALIST: ECOLOGICAL FITTING 10 VIII.CONCLUSION 11 REFERENCES 13 DOES SPECIALIZATION MUST LEAD TO AN EVOLUTIONARY DEAD END I. INTRODUCTION Academic community has always been intrigued by the highly specialized organisms, even though they have always been considered to be the final milestone on the road of evolution. Often termed as ‘inplastic’, ‘senescent’, ‘genetically fixed’ or ‘static’; they have been considered to have completed their...
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The End or Basis of Being
The End or Basis of Being
4 pages (1000 words)
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... Form; The End or Basis of Being Rufus in the dialogue Speculum Animae is involved in a philosophical dialogue on the dilemma concerning humanity and decision making by the human intellect, as well as the issue of potency and actuality in all things. Rufus in this dialogue tries to portray that thinking by a human being cannot be a preserve of the intellect, and that something in potency may be considered to attain its actuality through a process, which makes this potency into actuality in attaining its end or actual form. In this article, I support Rufus’ argument that thinking is not a preserve of the intellect. First, I give reasons as to how decisions are made by humans, second, I argue...
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Microbiology Lab Report: Bacteria
Microbiology Lab Report: Bacteria
4 pages (1000 words) , Download 1
... Bacteria are a type of prokaryotic microorganisms. Bacteria are neither wholly characteristically plants nor animals. They do not have a nucleus and well-defined cell organelles. They are of the size of a few micrometers in length and have various shapes ranging from rods, corpuscular, spirals etc. Bacteria were discovered by Anton Von Leeuwenhoek in 1676, which he called animalcules. Louis Pasteur in 1859 discovered that fermentation is an effect of microbial activity. Robert Koch postulated the ‘Germ Theory’ and went on to win the Nobel Prize in 1905. Paul Ehrlich discovered the first antibiotic by using dyes to ‘stain’ the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which caused syphilis, and he too was...
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Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms
Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms
6 pages (1500 words)
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... Synthetic studies towards the marine natural product cylindrospermopsin; the causative agent in freshwater toxic blooms Cylindrospermopsinin (C YN) is gradually being recognized as of the most global importance of the freshwater algal toxins. The rapid increase in CYN producers in temperate zones is yielding concern on the impact of this toxin to human, as well as environmental risk and health risks across the contents. Since 2000, there are several studies that have demonstrated the capacity for Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) to bio-accummulate especially in freshwater organism. This report synthesizes the current information on Cylindrospermopsin accumulation embracing information on the global...
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Lyme Disease
Lyme Disease
7 pages (1750 words)
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... [Teacher’s Biology Lyme disease Definition Lyme disease is an infectious animal borne illness that is transmitted by species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia (Samuels, 2010). Studies have shown that the diseases is caused by at least three species of this genus however, the main causative agent is a spirochete known as Borrelia burgdorferi (Mayo Clinic staff, 2005). The disease is spread through the bite of deer ticks, Inxodes scapularies, which feed on the blood of humans and animals (Mayo Staff clinic, 2005). Lyme disease was first identified in 1975 by Dr. Allen Steere after an out break of rheumatoid arthritis in Lyme, Connecticut (Todar, n.d). The disease was characterized by...
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Paleontogly
Paleontogly
7 pages (1750 words)
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... Head: Paleontology Sexual Dimorphism in Human Evolution: A Paleontological Challenge A Discussion Paper Date of Submission Introduction Evidently, there are several differences between the sexes that are strongly linked to the reproductive function and process; however, there are also several other anatomical variations between the sexes that are not that strongly related to the act and process of reproduction and are apparent throughout the body (Levinton, 2001). The entirety of these differences is referred to as sexual dimorphism. Though comparatively minor in human beings, sexual dimorphism is relatively huge in some of humans’ closest existing relatives, orangutans and gorillas (Sadava, Heller,...
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Mandrill Baboon
Mandrill Baboon
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Primates are magnificently diverse species having varied taxonomy, lifestyle, and geographical range. Among those primates, Mandrills are known to be the most exotic as well as distinct ones, and are the prominent subject in many African legends. The word ‘Mandrill’ means ‘man-ape’ and they belong to the non-Apes category among the primates of “Old World monkeys”. They are the largest species of the monkeys in the world and are considered to be a vulnerable and threatened species in the contemporary ecological scenario. These reclusive primates are natively found living in the tropical rainforests of equatorial West Africa. The discussion typically focuses on the Mandrill sphinx, the mandrill...
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Relationships between primates and their environments
Relationships between primates and their environments
1 pages (250 words)
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... between Primates and Their Environment Relationships between Primates and Their Environment Non-humanprimates are restricted in their normal habitats mainly to the subtropical and tropical regions of both Old and New Worlds. In order to explore the primate ecology, two primates have been selected and they are Gibbons and Orangutans. Gibbons belong to the biological family Hominoidea and are part of a sister group to great apes and humans. However, they differ from both species in diploid chromosomal number, body size and cranial form. Gibbons are inhabitants of vast habitats all around Southeast Asia. The adult size may vary from 45 cm to 90 cm while they may weigh around 5 to 12 kg. The sexual...
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Investigative Lab Proposal
Investigative Lab Proposal
1 pages (250 words)
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... Lab Effect of Temperature on Gold Fish Respiration Rate. The aim of the study is to determine how temperature canimpact the rate of respiration of Goldfish. Three goldfish will be used in the study. The temperatures to be considered in the study will range from 4 to 41 °C. Introduction Goldfish is a freshwater fish, belonging to the family Cyprinidae and genus Carassius, It is commonly found in ponds and aquariums. It is native to China, and the first time to be domesticated was centuries ago from the wild type, carp like, olive-colored fish that is up 40 cm long. Subtropical is their native climate and they dwell in freshwater that has a pH of 6.0–8.0, a 5.0–19.0 dGH water hardness and 4 to 41 °C ...
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Microeconomics: monopoly
Microeconomics: monopoly
2 pages (500 words)
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... A monopolistic competitive industry is one in which there are many producers selling product in a same genus but these products are differentiatedon the basis of advertising, quality, ingredients and other differentiating factors such as brand name, type of service etc. A firm located in this industry faces a more elastic curve than a monopoly because if producers try to charge higher prices to consumers, they can turn to other producers, a luxury which is not available in a monopoly. As a result, the resulting curve is more elastic than a monopoly indicating that this kind of firm cannot just charge any price, like a firm having a monopoly power. Similarly, the curve is less elastic than purely...
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Human Skeleton
Human Skeleton
1 pages (250 words)
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... [Teacher’s Human Anatomy First Human Skeloton The first human skeleton is known as Lucy or Australopithecus Mother of man - 3.2 million years ago", n.p). Paleontologists discovered 40% of the bones which make up the skeleton of the genus Australopithecus afarensis ("Mother of man - 3.2 million years ago", n.p). This was the first skeleton to be discovered as a majority of the past discoveries were minor bone fragments. The skeleton was discovered in Hadar, Awash Valley in Ethiopia. This discovery was made in the year 1974 by Donald Johanson (Tomkins, n.p). Paleontologists have dated this skeleton to be approximately 3 million years old and have placed it in the classification of hormonins. The...
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Pneumonia Dq question
Pneumonia Dq question
1 pages (250 words)
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... on Pulmonary Mucormycosis Mucor entails microbial genus of around 6 moulds, which are mainly located in the digestivesystems, decomposed vegetable matter, soil, and the plant surfaces. Majority of the mucor species are not able to infect human beings, because of their inability to develop in warm environments that are approximately 37 degrees Celsius. Thermotolerant species like Mucor inducus, in some cases result in opportunistic and rapidly developing necrotizing infections like zygomycosis. Mucormycosis mainly cause the nonresolving pneumonia, especially among the diabetic patients. The predisposing factors for mucormycosis are kartoacidosis, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, solid tumors, and...
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MICROBIOLOGY LAB REPORT/Sauerkraut fermentation
MICROBIOLOGY LAB REPORT/Sauerkraut fermentation
2 pages (500 words)
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... Food processing has played and important part in the food industry throughout history. Records shows that in the past, procedures like cereal cookery, brewing and storage of food were widely used, and date back as far as 8000 years ago. The modern food industry also uses some of these ancient techniques to process as well as produce food, with certain improvements, using the fruits of modern technology. Fermentation is one of those processes that are extensively used and studied as tool in food processing and production such as the production of beer and milk, as well as its role in spoiling of various foods, such as the spoilage of wine. A key ingredient in the process of fermentation is the varou...
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Moraxella catarrhalis
Moraxella catarrhalis
1 pages (250 words)
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... Moraxella catarrhalis Moraxella catarrhalis is a bacteria belonging to subgenus Branhamella of the genus Moraxella. The bacteria are gram negative and aerobic. It was first described in 1896 and causes infections of the middle ear, respiratory system, central nervous system joints and the eyes in human beings. The oxidase positive bacteria are known to be a causative agent to inflammations of the middle ear, throat, paranasal sinuses and bronchopneumonia in elderly patients and chronic smokers. Pathogenicity of Moraxella catarrhalis The bacteria can live commensally within the human respiratory tract only becoming infective with increase in a number or the presence of a pre-existing complication of t...
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Phytochemicals: carotenoids and phytosterols
Phytochemicals: carotenoids and phytosterols
6 pages (1500 words)
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... Phytochemicals: Phytosterols and Carotenoids Nutritionally high-powered foods are well known in the natural products industry. The groceries normally sell nutrition rich foods, including whole grains, soy products, amid others. The only new component about these foods is sciences’ added understanding about the disease-preventing constituents. An essential function for phytochemicals is becoming more likely on day-to-day basis as study unveils ore of their noteworthy benefits. In reality, the word phytonutrient better explains the compounds quasi-nutrient profile (Harvey 1-3). Recent research has shown that as we progress away from the diets of our ancestors we yield to modern diseases. Proof of this ...
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Entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica
8 pages (2000 words)
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... histolytica This paper gives an overview of the Entamoeba histolytica. It gives in depth detail regarding the lifecycle, genome structure, ecology and habitat, cell structure and metabolism, pathology and any current research that is going on regarding the protozoa. It will also include detail on how the parasite is transmitted, the diagnosis, and possible treatment options in case of an infection. The Entamoeba histolytica is of the Eukaryota domain, the phylum Amaebozoa, the class Archamoebae, the order Amoeibida and of the genus Entamoeba1. The parasitic protozoan is known to primarily infect humans and other primates mainly through the ingestion of any food and water that is contaminated with...
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Review #2
Review #2
1 pages (250 words)
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... Charles Darwin was convinced by his analysis that the human species origins, like that of any other species, are to be found in blind and ‘cruel’ competition at all levels, i.e. in many millennia of nature (Wenke and Olszewski, 83). This paper considers the origin of human species in the competitive world of Pleistocene Africa and how our genus evolved out of more ancient primates in a complex mixture of environments. One of the most recent developments in the contemporary paleoanthropology is the growing accord that many of the hominins who lived before about 300,000 years ago were not direct ancestors of us, Homo sapiens, genetically. Yet there are still many unanswered questions, and it is likely ...
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Construction Project Management
Construction Project Management
6 pages (1500 words) , Download 2
... International projects. An analysis of about six construction projects which take place in two countries. Research International projects. An analysis of about six construction projects which take place in two countries. Synopsis Even though principles of project management are the same in all nations throughout the world, certain aspects, which may be specific to the nations, may affect projects in different nations differently. Other than the typical constrains of project management such as time, cost and scope, certain aspects such as national culture among others may affect progress of projects in various nations. Therefore, in order that projects are completed successfully (that is they are...
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Echinacea
Echinacea
4 pages (1000 words) , Download 1
... Echinacea plant Echinacea commonly called the Purple coneflowers is a genus of nine species of herbaceous plants in the Family Asteraceae. All arestrictly native to eastern and central North America. The plants have large showy heads of composite flowers, blooming from early to late summer. The genus name is from the Greek echino, meaning "spiny", due to the spiny central disk. They are herbaceous, drought-tolerant perennial plants growing to 1 or 2 m in height. The leaves are lanceolate to elliptic, 10-20 cm long and 1.5-10 cm broad. Like all Asteraceae, the flowers are a composite inflorescence, with purple (rarely yellow or white) florets arranged in a prominent, somewhat cone-shaped head;...
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Triangulation in Geometry
Triangulation in Geometry
12 pages (3000 words)
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... in geometry Outline Key definitions 2. Euler's theorem 3. Discovering and generalizations 4. Gauss-Bonnet theorem 5. Surfaces, theirs topology and triangulation 1. Key definitions To make our considerations of extensions of the Euler's theorem and triangulation concepts more pure, we need to preliminary define the key notions from the related topics. First of all, polygon is a closed plane figure with sides (Weisstein 2002). Then, a polyhedron is the union of a finite set of polygons such that: (i) any pair of polygons meets only at their sides or corners; (ii) each side of each polygon meets exactly one other polygon along an edge; (iii) it is possible to travel from the interior of any polygon t...
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Retroviridae
Retroviridae
12 pages (3000 words)
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... Introduction Retroviridae is a large family of enveloped RNA viruses categorized under group-4 RNA viruses and which have common structure, composition and replicative properties (Table-1). The viruses included in this family are known as retroviruses. They are named for the action of a unique viral-encoded enzyme called reverse transcriptase (Coombs, Medscape). The hallmark of these viruses is the method of replication. Reverse transcription of the virion RNA into linear double-stranded DNA occurs and this DNA is integrated into the host cell genome. These viruses are obligate intracellular parasites whose replication depends absolutely on their hosts. Classification Retroviruses are subdivide...
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Plant biology
Plant biology
5 pages (1250 words)
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... Gene Transfer Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT), also known as Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT), is the process by which genetic material from one organism is passed across to another organism which is not an offspring of that organism. In other words, genetic information is exchanged between distantly-related or even non-related organisms by means other than sexual reproduction. This process is in contrast to the vertical descent of genes where genetic information is passed down to the offspring by conventional heredity mechanisms i.e. sexual and asexual reproduction and only within species or between closely- related individuals. HGT is observed mainly between prokaryotes (single-celled organisms) like...
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Effect of Ocean acidification upon ability to adapt to climate change in Nereis species
Effect of Ocean acidification upon ability to adapt to climate change in Nereis species
6 pages (1500 words)
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... Outline: Objectives To study the effects that low pH has on Nereid Polychaetes , with emphasis on molecular events (gene expression). 2.To investigate the difference in genes expression and protein levels in individuals of P. dumerilii that stem from different geographical locations when pH is decreced. 3. To assess the difference between acclimation, acclimatisation, adaptation and gene expression. 4. Study gene expression in pH stressed and control species (non-Nereis) that live within new CO2 vents. Chapter 1: Differences in gene expression between Nereis succinea, Nereis zonata, Nereis diversicolor and Platynereis dumerilii upon the introduction of pH challenges. Ocean acidification involves lowe...
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Bananas - description
Bananas - description
6 pages (1500 words)
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... Akbar Sharon Mueller English 1301 9 November Bananas Outline Thesis ment Taxonomy A. Musa genus B. Musaceae family C. M. acuminata Colla species D. M. X paradisiaca L. hybrid. III. Varieties A. Major Group 1. Sucrier 2. Gros Michel B. Subgroup 1. Cavendish A. Dwarf Cavendish B. Giant Cavendish C. Bungulan IV. Food Uses A. Raw. B. Boiled or baked. C. Preserved. V. Nutritional Value A. Low in fat, cholesterol, and sodium B. Good source of potassium, fiber, and vitamin B6. VI. Contrasts and comparisons VII. Conclusion Thesis Statement Various varieties of bananas exist in different parts of the world offering nutritional value at an affordable price. Bananas are fruits available throughout the year in...
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