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... Early history is full of documentation, even as early as 9,000 B.C., depicting how ancient people made and used ethanol as a psychoactive recreational drug. The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest known organic reactions created by mankind. Ethanol has been widely used by nearly every civilization and still continues to this day. Now, as the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels drives research, ethanol has taken a vital place in the energy needs of the future. Ethanol was not used as a fuel until Samuel Morey developed the first combustion engine in 1824; it ran on ethanol and turpentine. It was mostly used industrially and for lamps until 1862, when the U.S. Congress...