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ENGLISH LEGAL SYSTEM & SKILLS
ENGLISH LEGAL SYSTEM & SKILLS
6 pages (1500 words)
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... English Legal Systems and Skills of English Legal Systems and Skills Material facts of the case and initial grounds of appeal The case was an allegation that the claimant had sexually assaulted a fifteen year old school boy who was undergoing a short period of work experience at the school where the claimant had been newly employed as music assistance. It was alleged that the claimant had inappropriate contact with the boy and further that inappropriate text from the claimant to the boy inviting the boy to meet him were found in the boy’s phone. The school consequently expelled the claimant from working in the school. The initial grounds of appeal by the appellant was that he was denied his right to ...
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Court report
Court report
6 pages (1500 words)
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... Report Court Report Legal s in the UK strive to deliver justice by convicting persons guilty of unlawful acts, resolving civil disputes in the society and interpreting the laws to concerned parties. The British legal system has a wide variety of legal institutions that perform different functions in administering justice. Tribunals are categorized in terms of the powers bestowed on them and depending on the complexity of the cases that they try. The Supreme Court is the highest legal system in the UK after it assumed the functions of the Scottish High Court of Justiciary (Legilation.gov.uk, 2005). The court tries and decides appeals from lower courts on matters of public concern to settle legal...
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Civil Society in Malaysia and Thailand
Civil Society in Malaysia and Thailand
5 pages (1250 words)
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... Most political scientists have always deemed the strength or presence of a democracy by the presence and vibrancy of the civil society. This notion not only applies to mature democracies, but also to the ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand. Considered mostly as the third sector of the society, the civil society is not only distinct from the corporate sector and the public service, but is also the aggregate of non-governmental institutions and organizations which runs independent of the government. The salient nature of the civil society is exemplified when the Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak announced that the Malaysian government was finally going to repeal the draconian Internal S...
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The absolute Separation of Powers is not practical neither achievable. There is always going to be some degree of overlap. Evaluate the above in connection with the UK constitution
The absolute Separation of Powers is not practical neither achievable. There is always going to be some degree of overlap. Evaluate the above in connection with the UK constitution
6 pages (1500 words)
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... OF ABSOLUTE SEPARATION OF POWERS al Affiliation) Key words: Doctrine of Powers, UK Constitution Introduction The doctrine of absolute separation of powers is not applicable in our present society. For highly developed societies with a democratic system of government, there is bound to be some overlap in terms of the functions that each arm of the government performs. There are a number of criticisms that have been put forward with regards to the impracticality of the doctrine of absolute separation of powers. One of the countries that can provide a good analysis of the impossibility of the separation of powers is the UK (Masterman 2011). A democratic country is composed of many parts of the governmen...
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Human Rights and Anti-Terrorsm Legislation
Human Rights and Anti-Terrorsm Legislation
6 pages (1500 words)
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... LEGISLATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS The changes ushered into the British legal system ride on the crescent wave of voices and policies in the European community that seek to uphold the primacy of human rights and due process, particularly when made vulnerable by antiquated state structures and legal institutions. The clear trend has been to favor the sanctity of individual liberties over the preservation of traditionalist and vanguardist policies. As stated by O'Donnell (2004): "a truly democratic rule of law ensures political rights, civil liberties, and mechanisms of accountability which in turn affirms the political equality of all citizens and constrain political abuses of state power." (p.32) This pa...
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Discuss the dual role of the security sector in the Arab World as both a source of political stability and instability
Discuss the dual role of the security sector in the Arab World as both a source of political stability and instability
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Dual role of Security Sector This article will converse lack of ample attention to the Arab Security Sector and its complex political and social roles in the Arab states. The research will demonstrate insufficient scholarly attention as depicted by different academic publication in Middle East Studies. Lastly, the research will highlight the role of Arab Security Sector in the process of state formation, connections in the political system, and reinforcing intersectional relations in the Arab States. Berglieng et al. (98) argues that the Rule of Law (ROL) and Security Sector Reform (SSR) can assist in post-conflict and all events related to the Arab Spring. ROL promotion by international community w...
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Constitutional Law Article
Constitutional Law Article
14 pages (3500 words)
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... Constitutional Law With reference to case-law, outline what you understand the traditional (or orthodox or continuing) view of parliamentary sovereignty to be. How, if at all, does the European Communities Act 1972 represent a challenge to the traditional view of sovereignty' The United Kingdom has no written constitution not like other states or countries, it has always been the Parliament that has been regarded as the supreme authority with regard to statutes and laws are concerned. The exercise of the Parliament to draft its laws is the only way subsequent statutes can be in conformed to considering that there is no written constitution. Parliamentary sovereignty has three elements: (1) Parliam...
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Britain and EU
Britain and EU
8 pages (2000 words)
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... The United Kingdom operates under a parliamentary democracy system in which the government is voted into various positions of power by the members of the public through a democratic electoral process. Universal suffrage is a term used to refer to the right to vote by every adult citizen. Those elected are to act in the interest of the people. The country is also operating a constitutional monarchy in which the leadership has remained impartial and with very limited powers (Corbett, et. al, 231). The parliament of the United Kingdom is the highest legislative authority and it is responsible for checking the work of the government. They play the examining role as well as debating and approving of new ...
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Options for Lords reform
Options for Lords reform
28 pages (7000 words)
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... For House of Lords Reform Introduction: The reform of the House of Lords is not a new initiative it has been hanging in the air for more than a hundred years. In these more than hundred years, the movement of reform initiatives resembles the ‘side-step’ dance: one step forward and two steps sideways. The saving grace has been that movement has not been retrograde. As a result the House of Lords, which started out almost on par with the House of Commons has seen its powers and privileges gradually being eroded with the last act being the removal of most of the hereditary peers in 1999. By this initiative there would be only a mere ninety-two hereditary Peers in the House of Lords and that too by elec...
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Legal System: The New Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
Legal System: The New Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
9 pages (2250 words)
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... creation of a Supreme Court was an unnecessary and overly-expensive reform. The Appellate Committee of the House of Lords was independent, effective and was regarded as one of the finest courts in the world.’  Discuss. The New Supreme Court of the United Kingdom: Unnecessary and Costly Reform or Idea Whose Time Has Come? In 2009, a new innovation was introduced into the legal system of the United Kingdom. The Supreme Court was created, effectively replacing the House of Lords as the last court of appeal in the UK. It was created by virtue of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, which made provisions for the same. Some critics have scorned this latest legal development as a cosmetic change that will...
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Double entry journals/5 Double Entry Journal Articles
Double entry journals/5 Double Entry Journal Articles
4 pages (1000 words)
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... Maddison, Sarah (2009). Black Politics: Inside the complexity of Aboriginal Political Culture. Sentences from Article #1“Sarah Maddison argues that meaningful self-determination has never, in fact, been tried in Australia, and is likely to be far more effective in addressing indigenous disadvantage… (Maddison, S. 2009, n. p.). “… from self-determination to welfare dependency”? (Maddison, S., 2009, n. p.). “Dependency or autonomy? …the current problems of Indigenous people are very much the result of passivity problems created by earlier interventions. Passivity, at its core, involves an abandonment of responsibility by individuals, families and communities. With the decline of responsibility come f...
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Assessing Leadership Style: Political Leaders in the Middle East
Assessing Leadership Style: Political Leaders in the Middle East
8 pages (2000 words)
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... head: Assessing Leadership Style Assessing Leadership Style: Political Leaders in the Middle East Insert Insert Grade Insert Tutor’s Name April 20, 2011 Outline Abstract Introduction Leadership styles Case studies An explanation of what happened in those leaders The future of other Arab States Regime Conclusion: recommendation for the remaining leaders References Abstract The concept of leadership has been a center of focus for many researchers in the recent past. The researchers would want to identify and recognize what constitutes an effective leadership. Most academic institutions have opted to include a study of leadership styles in their curriculum as a way of developing the concept among the...
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Gun control
Gun control
6 pages (1500 words)
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... English Gun Control The Gun culture in America is a topic that has generated a lot of heat in the public spheres and yet a concession seems to be a dream whose time is not yet defined. Gun culture is a term that is used in this state to refer to the abuse of gun rights in the public sphere that has heighetening the level of crime to intolerable levels. Gun control is a move that aims at neutralizing the abuse of gun use in the public spheres that has become a source public criticism over the years. Statistics indicate that in United states gun violence has contributed to a higher rate of killing than even road accidents. The proponents of gun rights argue that the availability of gun in the public...
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Human Rights Act 1998 s 3 s 4
Human Rights Act 1998 s 3 s 4
12 pages (3000 words)
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... Rights Act of 1998 Introduction: Within the UK, the European Convention of Human Rights was not directly relevant to sta y interpretation1 until the introduction of the Human Rights Act of 1998. Earlier, individuals seeking redress for violation of their fundamental rights as laid out under the Convention, were forced to directly approach the Human Rights Court at Strasbourg, however the Human Rights Act has introduced the facility of redress within national UK courts. Parliamentary sovereignty means that UK law can override international law2, however the introduction of the Human Rights Act was geared towards bringing about a “major constitutional change” within the UK3 in order to ensure that...
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The Approach of the Law Lords
The Approach of the Law Lords
7 pages (1750 words)
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... approach of the Law Lords to sta y interpretation has been radically changed by the Human Rights Act. Judges now see themselves as legislating human rights through their interpretation of Acts of Parliament.’ The Human Rights Act came into force in October 2000 and implements in the law of the United Kingdom the principles enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. It consists of three main innovations: first, it explicitly prohibits a state agent or public official from violating the rights enshrined in the ECHR, second, it allows UK courts to hear human rights cases without the applicant or complainant having to go to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, Austria; and third, ...
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Rule of Law
Rule of Law
6 pages (1500 words)
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... the principles of the rule of law as laid out by Raz The Rule of Law and its Virtue' 1977, 93 LQR) a satisfactory explanation of the rule of law The changes ushered into the British legal system ride on the crescent wave of voices and policies in the European community that seek to uphold the primacy of human rights and due process, particularly when made vulnerable by antiquated state structures and legal institutions. The clear trend has been to favor the sanctity of individual liberties over the preservation of traditionalist and vanguardist policies. As stated by O'Donnell (2004): "a truly democratic rule of law ensures political rights, civil liberties, and mechanisms of accountability which i...
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Hong Kong Tradition and Modernization
Hong Kong Tradition and Modernization
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Hong Kong- its Tradition and Modernization The Beijing Olympics was inaugurated on the 8 th August 2008 in Beijing, China. During the march of the sportspersons from the different countries, it was the well turned out contingent from Hong Kong which attracted the greatest applause from the spectators. The Chinese spectators from all over the Mainland China felt thrilled at seeing their cousins from the island, although the mainlanders excelled themselves in all the sports they participated in. The Hong Kong Chinese have a special sophistication, a certain style that the mainlanders admire and envy. While the ordinary mainland Chinese is traditional, the Hong Kong Chinese is modern, while the former...
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How, if at all, are Thatcherism and New Labour interrelated
How, if at all, are 'Thatcherism' and 'New Labour' interrelated
8 pages (2000 words)
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... if at all, are ‘Thatcherism’ and ‘New Labour’ interrelated? Eighteen years of Thatcherite rule drastically altered the social, economic and political terrain in British society, forcing the incoming government to make a fundamental choice of direction. The government could either offer an alternative and radical strategy to Thatcherism that was altered to take into account the shifts of the 1970’s and 1980’s or adapt it’s policies to the Thatcherite, neo-liberal terrain. After becoming leader of the party in 1994, Blair opted for the latter and made a decisive break away from Old Labour’s traditional political stance, rebranding the party as ‘New Labour’ and ending the toleration of the militant le...
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Protection of Human Rights
Protection of Human Rights
16 pages (4000 words)
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... Human Rights in comparison with the EU and International Law Introduction The protection of human rights in the international community is ensured through a series of appropriately customized legal texts. These texts - that are going to be presented analytically in the sections that follow - are considered to be effective towards the protection of the rights of individuals around the world; however, in practice the respect of the rights of people internationally faces severe delays mostly because the governmental and the international authorities avoid to intervene in cases where the protection of rights can lead to the conflict with national political power. In the case of Britain, the main legal...
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To what extent is it fair to characterise delegated legislation as a practical necessity that undermines important constitutional principles
To what extent is it fair to characterise delegated legislation as a practical necessity that undermines important constitutional principles
10 pages (2500 words)
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... Legislation: a Practical Necessity Delegated Legislation: a Practical Necessity Table of Contents I. Introduction II. The UK Constitution ●Separation of powers ●Parliamentary sovereignty III. Delegated Legislation ●Definition ●Rationale ●Types ●Controls ●When invalid ●Advantages IV. Problems with delegated legislation ●Montesquieus theory ●Disadvantages V. Delegated legislation: a practical necessity VII. Conclusion I. Introduction The process of lawmaking has brought benefits for the purposes of man. However, this process has bounds and limits due their possible negative effects as in contravening some important principles of constitution. Power must not be concentrated among a few, for exam...
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Legal System
Legal System
8 pages (2000 words) , Download 1
... Head: Understanding Law Understanding Law Research Essay s The aim of the research of this paper is evaluate the importance of law, its essays. How many kinds of laws are being used in the world Although the purpose of these laws is the same in the world but are known and understood differently. International laws and rules are accepted around the world with the same purpose and aim like trade agreements, security agreements and treaties. Prescribed and prepaid rules have been made to protect countries as well as people. It has been investigated that how Courts in England work, how they are administered and governed under the law. Understanding Law Understanding the rule or importance of the law dep...
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Womens Right (Equal Right Amendment)
Womens Right (Equal Right Amendment)
10 pages (2500 words) , Download 1
... Liberation through the Equal Rights Amendment The enduring struggle of women for their emancipation and for the attainment of equality remains a significant portion of the history of humankind. The fervent effort to eradicate the patriarchal set-up of societies and the culture of machismo therein overwhelmed the female species throughout time. This synchronized and yet sporadic movement by women activists, suffragists and liberationists precipitated for the advent of an epic legal victory that resulted benefits that scores of generations of women have enjoyed. In this paper, the author will outline, examine and interpret the women’s rights movement in America. Of particular importance here is the...
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The Human Rights Act 1998 was a constitutional mistake. Discuss
The Human Rights Act 1998 was a constitutional mistake. Discuss
16 pages (4000 words)
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... Whether the Human Rights Act 1998 was a Constitutional Mistake? – An Analysis Introduction Of late, there has been wide public debate in UK over the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) (hither in after will be referred as HRA). Due to three high-profile cases namely the Afghani hijacker’s verdict1, the Chahal2 case and the Anthony Rice3 case which made the critics to vehemently argue that HRA, or the style in which it is being construed, is barring the UK Government from guaranteeing the safety and rights of the general public, and hence it should be either amended or repealed. In the above three cases, there have been a failure to consider for deportation of foreign prisoners who are held under terrorism...
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Progress of Women in Middle East
Progress of Women in Middle East
8 pages (2000 words)
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... of Women in Middle East Just over 100 years ago, Qasim Amin, an Egyptian lawyer and judge who is considered the "father of Arab feminism," wrote, "The evidence of history confirms and demonstrates that the status of women is inseparably tied to the status of a nation." If that is true, then most of the nations in the Middle East are truly in bad shape (Women In The Middle East: Progress Or Regress?) Middle East seems to be the most underdeveloped region in the world as far as women progress is concerned. It should be noted that Islamic administrations are prevailing in most of the Middle Eastern countries and hence it is extremely difficult for the women in this region to develop beyond certain...
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Cuban and Jewish American Immigrants
Cuban and Jewish American Immigrants
7 pages (1750 words)
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... and Jewish American Immigrants Introduction American dream is a fascinating aspiration that motivates representatives of different nations to become immigrants. Waves of immigrants have been directed towards America and this wave is still flowing to America. Further research is based on Jewish and Cuban immigrants in America and the way they were treated by the public policies of the country. Centennial existence of these ethnic groups on the American land signifies America as a favorable country for living. The representatives of Jewish and Cuban nations have escaped from their countries in the searches for a new better life. Therefore, America is a country that is able to provide not only its...
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The advantages and disadvantages of federal government
The advantages and disadvantages of federal government
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Number] Advantages and Disadvantages of Federal Government Federal government is a political system that is based upon the principle of dividing the power and authorities between the central government and various regional governments. The power of the central and regional governments is decided through the written constitution that is supposed to explicitly define the power sharing arrangements between states and its units. There are some areas like provision of public health, domestic trade matters and licensing issues etc where the provincial or regional governments could take the decisions independently without waiting for the endorsement of the central government however, several other matters ...
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Immigration reform
Immigration reform
7 pages (1750 words)
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... Immigration Reform Introduction In general terms, immigration reform refers to political discussion that relates to the changes to existing immigration laws and policy of a particular country. Over the years, prosperous countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States have been attracting immigrants in large numbers (Muwonge 10). This situation is attributed to the fact that such countries have better social, economic, and political environments that are more favorable for living and have more opportunities than the immigrants’ countries of origin. While these countries have immigration policies, they have often grappled with challenges brought about by the immigration. ...
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Public Law
Public Law
8 pages (2000 words)
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... PUBLIC LAW by of the of the of the School June 29, Introduction The UK constitution holds the House of Lords, the House of Commons, and the queen (the crown) to the constituents of the UK parliament. The House of Lords in the UK can be traced back to the 14th century, from where it has developed with various changes to what people now call the second chamber or upper house in the UK constitution (parliament.uk, 2011). For centuries, it had always had an upper hand in the work of the government, by either supporting or refuting the discussions of the common house. Between the 19th and 21st centuries, various changes have taken place and have ended up reducing the powers and rights bestowed on the...
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What are the key features of four of the coalition governments welfare reforms What has been said in favour of these four reforms Which commentators have criticised the reforms, and why
What are the key features of four of the coalition governments welfare reforms What has been said in favour of these four reforms Which commentators have criticised the reforms, and why
9 pages (2250 words)
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... Government Contents Introduction 3 Features of four of the Coalition Government’s welfare reforms 3 Points in favour of these four reforms 5 Criticism of the reforms 9 Conclusion 11 References 13 Introduction England is historically renowned for public spending. It is truly a welfare state. However from 1970s and to be precise from the time of ex Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, government policy started to favor privatization and reduction of welfare expenditure. The trend continued in 1990s and the current policy change is in the same tune as well (Freedland, 2013). Britains first formal coalition since World War II has been working exceedingly well, under the guidance and leadership of Mr. David ...
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British Prime Minister
British Prime Minister
40 pages (10000 words)
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... INTRODUCTION The office of the Prime Minister of England as it was referred to earlier, is a unique status about which T.B. Macaulay writes in one of his letters to his father, when he comes to know the unfortunate death of Canning in 1827 after only four months of attaining the post of Prime Minister: "To fall at the very moment of reaching the very highest pinnacle of human ambition! The whole work of thirty chequered years of glory and obloquy struck down in a moment! The noblest prize that industry, dexterity, wit and eloquence ever obtained vanishing into nothing in the very instant in which is had been grasped!" Lord Blake (1975, p.1)1. 10, Downing Street, the present residence of British pr...
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Social policy- policy analysis
Social policy- policy analysis
10 pages (2500 words)
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... Lecturer Critical Analysis of the Labor and Coalition Governments Efforts to Promote Safeguarding of Children in the United Kingdom As a human being, a child has got rights and freedoms which are provided and guaranteed by the constitution. These include right to a registered name; right to live; right to education; right to food; right to parental care and love; right to religion; right to be heard; right to quality medical care; and right to be protected from any form of child abuse (Beatson, 2008). These are fundamental rights which all the children should be given. They are recognized by the United Nations Children Rights since they are part of the Human Rights (Jeff, 2003). This paper discusses ...
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Immigration Reform
Immigration Reform
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Immigration Reform U.S global competitiveness is a question that has been nagging to policymakers and think tanks given that the issue of immigration reform touches on the economic stability of the nation. Apparently, US have realized that it attracts, and host so many immigrants who sometimes fail to report to their countries or seek extension of their visas after expiry. These issues have drawn debate over the future of United States following immigration Reforms. Many leaders have given their opinions regarding the immigration reform process focusing on its implication to the future of the United States. For instance, the statement made by President Barrack Obama gave a clear indication that...
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Constitutional Ethic
Constitutional Ethic
2 pages (500 words)
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... Ethic Application of the concept of constitutional ethics to all public services The concept of constitutional ethics in public service is a form of government reform that has gained focus in the recent past. This comes as questions arise as to whether public administrators should dirty their hands for the benefit of the public (Kennedy & Schultz, 2011). The four common levels of ethics are personal morality, social ethics, organizational ethics, and professional ethics. Since public servants address constitutional issues daily, they should learn and apply the different levels of ethics and apply them for moral decision-making. 2. Assess the roles of Neutral competency and expertise in Public adminis...
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Public Law
Public Law
28 pages (7000 words)
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... No Public Law The United Kingdom is a Constitutional monarchy with a bicameral Parliament, comprised of the Houses of Commons and Lords1. While the United Kingdom does not have a formal written and codified Constitution, there is an unwritten set of rules comprised of the Acts of Parliament, judicial decisions as well as political practices that form the basis of Constitutional practice within the U.K2. Parliament is sovereign, as articulated by Oxford Professor A.V. Dicey who stated that “in theory, Parliament has total power, it is sovereign” thereby it is the source of all valid authority.3 Therefore, there is no separation of powers in the U.K., Parliament has been deputed as the supreme...
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Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Article 3 of the ECHR
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Article 3 of the ECHR
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Article 3 of the ECHR. Introduction: Human rights can be broadly defined as those rights that are inherent to all human beings irrespective of their nationality, sex, origin, religion, place of residence et al.1 Everyone in the world is entitled to their human rights without any form of discrimination, unless the rights they accrue have been limited for some special circumstance. Human rights are unique in the sense that they are universal and apply to all, they are also interrelated and indivisible and affecting one bears a burden on the others. They are guaranteed by law and occur in the form of treaties, customary international law, general principles and...
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Constitutional Revolution in Britain
Constitutional Revolution in Britain
2 pages (500 words) , Download 0
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... England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland constitutes the of United Kingdom of which queen is the supreme authority. All the states relate as per the constitution which is unwritten an indication that the rule of law is upheld. The laws can be amended by the parliament through simple majority votes in the house commons, interestingly individual rights are taken care of by the customs and ordinary laws. Considering the various states, Britain remains the unitary point vested with all the constitutional authorities. The concentration of constitutional powers has elicited a notion that British should be considered a union state, this is because it exhibit very limited devolution with states .The...
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Tort Reform in the USA
Tort Reform in the USA
3 pages (750 words)
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... Reform Tort reform is a policy developed to make changes to common law civil justice systems for the purpose of minimizing tort litigation or damages. The tort reform policies specifically focus on personal injury common law rules. However, tort reform has been yet another incessant political debate in the United States in the recent years. Although the proposed reform aims to reduce tort litigation or damages, it has raised multiple responses across the country for and against the proposal. This paper will critically evaluate some of the print and electronic sources that deal with the tort reform issues in the United States. “What is tort reform?” is an article written by Eddins & Greenstone (200...
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The High Court, The Crown Court & Magistrates Court
The High Court, The Crown Court & Magistrates Court
10 pages (2500 words)
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... head: The High Court, The Crown Court & Magistrates Court The High Court, The Crown Court & Magistrates Court [The of the writer appears here] [The name of institution appears here] Introduction Criminal trials in England and Wales take place at two levels. The most serious offences, such as murder, rape, and arson must be tried in the Crown Court, a unitary court, which is part of the Supreme Court and is a superior court of record. Trials in the Crown Court are presided over by a judge, who may be a High Court judge, a circuit judge, a recorder, or an assistant recorder. If the accused pleads not guilty the judge empanels a jury of twelve citizens chosen at random from the electoral roll....
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Health Care Reform
Health Care Reform
2 pages (500 words)
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... Head: HEALTH CARE ACT September 11th As we approach the six month anniversary of the HealthCare Reformact passed on May 14th 2010 multiple lawsuits are being filed. The first lawsuit was filed by Virginia on September 7th 2010. The second lawsuit was filed a day later (September 8th 2010) by Missouri. To further add to this controversy the federal court for the state of Florida has determined that the Health Care Reform Act is unconstitutional. Lawyers from the White-House have filed responses in regards to separate lawsuits attempting to overturn the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also referred to as the health care act). Attorneys representing the state of Missouri allege that 71.4% o...
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Why are policies in Germany so difficult to reform
Why are policies in Germany so difficult to reform
8 pages (2000 words)
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... REFORM POLICIES Location: Introduction As portrayed in recent literature, most of the central welfare states are still the same. The reason for this is the reforms reinforced their characteristics, and they seem incapable to implement any significant reforms. There are other welfare regimes that have managed to overcome their difficulties through the reforms introduction. Germany as the case in point, not only appears incapable to find a way out of the crisis, but also seems to be sealed into its problems by the very weight of its tradition (Palier, 2007). Discussion German policy is shaped by the central role of the fundamental law and its interpretation by the federal constitutional court, througho...
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Comparative european politics
Comparative european politics
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Preeminent Consociational Democracy in Europe Introduction Arend Lijphart is the leading supporter of the consociational/ consensus model. He highlighted ‘consociational’ democracy as an appropriate model for states characterised by deep religious, linguistic, or ethnic divisions (Crepaz, Koelble & Wilsford 2000). Nevertheless, in his recent work, Patterns of Democracy, Lijphart (1999) supports ‘consensus’ democracy, or an adjusted variation of consociational democracy, as the perfect type of governance for any state, not only extremely divided states. In contrast to the widely held wisdom that effective, influential, majoritarian leadership results in superior policy outcomes, Westminster...
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Constitutional understanding
Constitutional understanding
3 pages (750 words)
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... Constitutional understanding How would the United s embrace positive rights? By constitutional convention, constitutional Amendment, or by judges creating such rights under a theory of a living constitution, as Cass Sunstein advises. The United States of American constitution has undergone numerous changes from the founding constitution and therefore resulted to a lot of critics. To some people, they believe the constitution is unfair and somehow needs be changed in order to favour positive human rights. In accordance to Matthew for instance, the meaning of liberty today and the meaning of liberty when the constitution became founded remains totally different (Sanford 13). As time passed, a lot of th...
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Immigration Reform
Immigration Reform
7 pages (1750 words)
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... Reform Insert Insert Insert March 2, I. Introduction a) Summarize policy reform debate briefly Policy reform debate on boundaries is an ongoing debate in the United States since 9/ 11 terrorist attacks. It is based on realignment of the US immigration system and national security enforcement. The expansion of immigration policy is the major goal of the whole debate where new enforcement measures are considered as the ultimate achievements of the debate. Basic new laws on immigration controls are focused upon legislature’s aggressiveness on enforcement. It is meant to meet the needs of the ever-growing population of the immigrant families that represent one in four people in the states (Batalova and...
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Constitutional Issues
Constitutional Issues
3 pages (750 words)
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... Constitutional issues Introduction Simeone was practicing the rights guaranteed to all citizens of American under the US Constitution: the right to peaceable assembly, the right to free speech, and the right to appeal our government for a remedy of grievances, assured by the First Amendment. Those grievances articulated by the Occupy association shared by large masses of Americans: three quarters of citizens want billionaires taxed extra, two-thirds of the citizens desire the Iraq and Afghanistan wars ceased, and large majorities requiring funding moved from the armed forces to green power and education and employment opportunities. Her participation in this peaceful demonstration was more than...
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Addressing human rights abuses in post Gaddafi Libya
Addressing human rights abuses in post Gaddafi Libya
10 pages (2500 words)
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... HUMAN RIGHTS LAW RESEARCH: ADDRESSING HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN POST GADDAFI LIBYA of Date Question 1 A: Legal Alternatives to a TRC in Seeking Justice Human Rights Abuses The 2011 Libyan revolution was a form of armed conflict that occurred between 15 February 2011 and 23 October 2011. The revolution pitted the forces that were loyal to the then Libya leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi against those who were seeking to oust Gaddafi’s government. What began as clashes between protesters in Benghazi with security forces later escalated into a revolution across Libya with those opposed to Gaddafi’s government establishing the National Transitional Council; their interim governing body. During the revolution, ...
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Key Constitutional Concepts
Key Constitutional Concepts
1 pages (250 words)
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... Constitutional Concepts Summary The video documentary starts by presenting the Constitution and the reason why it became necessary to have aconstitution in the first place. The three documentary videos inspect key constitutional concepts. The first video enlightens why the leader of the nation created the Constitution. In the second video, the documentary talks about the protecting individual rights by emphasizing the Supreme Court case of Gideon v. Wainwright. This case affirmed the right to an attorney. Finally, the last video discusses power separation by inspecting the Supreme Court case of Youngstown v. Sawyer. This case is significant as it challenged President Trumans decision to take...
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Constitutional Law
Constitutional Law
8 pages (2000 words)
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... Law Critically discuss from your research and analysis the relationship of the English courts to the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy particularly the English judicial attitude to acts of parliament which are in conflict or inconsistent with previous acts of parliament. The question of the relationship of the English courts with the parliament is not new. Before analysing it in the context of latest international developments in the political landscape, let us get a bird’s eye view of the history of constitutional law and supremacy of parliament over judiciary. The history of constitutional law in the UK goes far back to 1689, the year in which the English Bill of Rights was passed. This bill curt...
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RESEARCH PAPER - CORPORATE TAX REFORM
RESEARCH PAPER - CORPORATE TAX REFORM
6 pages (1500 words)
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... Paper - Corporate Tax Reform Research Paper - Corporate Tax Reform Corporate Tax Reform refers to the process of revising the manner in which the government collects and manage taxes from corporate organizations. USA corporate tax, however, remained without significant reforms since 1986 when it had Tax Reform Act. Economists and analysts attribute foreseeable success in the current cooperate tax reforms in America (Sperling, 2014) 1. Bartlett (2012)2, identifies tax reforms as a vital policy concern of the American government. The recent economic slowdown contributed significantly to drop of federal revenue. Aggressive tax avoidance involving hiding profits that corporate earned overseas further dim...
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Immigration reform
Immigration reform
7 pages (1750 words)
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... Immigration Reform Immigration Reform Developed nations such the United s will always attract immigrants searching for jobs and better life. The problem is that most of these immigrants access their destination through the use of illegal immigration channels, e.g. use of the border between the United States and Mexico. According to Wasem (2010), the current proportion of foreigners residing in the U.S. has reached approximately 12.6% of the national population with about 10.8 million of these residing illegally. Immigration reform is a term popular within the political circles relating to changes in the immigration policy. Immigration reform targets both legal and illegal immigrants. The proponents...
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Legal environment of business W 1
Legal environment of business W 1
2 pages (500 words)
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... LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS W Lecturer: LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS W The health of citizens is a very important factor that determines the outcome of almost all aspects of the life of a person, be it in education, business or social life. This is because a person has to be in good health to be able to function actively and effectively in all areas of life (Thornbory, 2009). However, there continues to be several factors that make it difficult for citizens of the United States (U.S.) to access healthcare to levels that meet their needs. It is in the light of this that there have been several interventions at the federal and local levels with the aim providing the people with the needed outcomes...
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