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Biostatestics

12 pages (3000 words)

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... BIOSTATISTICS ASSIGNMENTS (Q1-Q4) Q1. P value between first and second screening observations of presence is 0.967 and the p value of absence is 0.80851 this means that the p value is > than 0.05. So we can conclude the null hypothesis is right meaning the observations are statistically sme whether in first screening or second screening. The t test and chi square test were calculated to arrive at this hypothesis and the null hypothesis is thus retained. Question 2 1. The ODDS RATIO (usually abbreviated ?OR?) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the having or not having of the property A is linked with having or not having the property B in that population. As the name implies, to...

Management and Spurious Correlation

7 pages (1750 words)

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... Management and Spurious Correlation Introduction Management and spurious correlation can be described as a mathematical relationship whereby there are two events or variables that have no direct or casual connection with each other but still may be identified as two events or variables that have a connection due to a wrong identification or due to coincidence. A false assumption is whereby there are two variables that presumed to be correlated when in the real sense, they are not. They can also be confused to be related because of the presence of an unseen or confounding factor (Kirk, 2008). Spurious correlation or relationship is in most cases something that results from a third factor that is not...

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Confounding Variables

1 pages (250 words)

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... Variables Scenario chosen: Scenario h An elementary school teacher wants to show that parents’ involvement helps their children learn. She randomly chooses one half of the boys and one half of the girls in her class and sends a note home with them. The note asks the parents to spend more time each day working with the child on his or her math homework. The other half of the children do not receive a note. At the end of the school year, the teacher finds that the children whose parents she sent notes to have significantly better final math grades. Why can’t the researcher conclude that parental involvement increased the students’ scores?
Confounding variable that could be present:
1. Maturation: Over ...

The issue of lurking doubt

6 pages (1250 words)

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... Doubt Test
Appeals of an unmeritorious are only allowed by the court when it allows appeals using the lurking doubt test, so the test should be consigned to history. In law, miscarriage of justice in a court of law can usually be corrected by an appellate court if it is decided that the judge can review the evidence and give credence to luring doubt in a conviction or otherwise. From an analysis of Section 2 of CAA 1968,1 it can be deduced that the Court of Appeal is a statutory body and should not at any time go beyond its mandate of a statutory jurisdiction. However, some events indicate that the court has more power and can take into consideration some actions of the Court of Criminal Appeals. One...

1. Explain what the terms correlations AND confounding variables mean (in your own words, and cite the source)

2 pages (500 words)

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... and Confounding Variables Affiliation: Research into a given topic ofstudy accounts for specific scenarios that the researcher seeks to get more insight into, or even evaluate and assess a phenomenon directed towards an inference in relation to the variables treated in the study. Variables accounted for in the study can exhibit various characteristics, all of which are crucial in making conclusive assertions about the research or study done. Among these study characteristics are correlations and confounding variables. These research aspects influence the study in one way or another, in line with the objectives and hypothesis of the study.
The article on Obesity in Latino Children seeks to identify fa...

Variable Costing

5 pages (1250 words)
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... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING Basic ideas about cost behavior Cost behavior is mainly divided into three i.e. the fixed, variable and mixed costs. Cost behavior is the change in cost in relation to the level of activity changes. The total variable cost normally changes as the activity level changes, while per unit, the variable cost per unit will normally remain the equal over a wider range of activity. Fixed cost will always remain the same when the activity level changes while fixed cost per unit decreases with an increase in the activity level (Hansen, et, al 2006) Mixed cost, have both the component of variable and fixed costs. Product cost versus period cost Also known as inventorial costs, product...

Variable Selection

1 pages (250 words)

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... selection Variable selection Bruce Ratner prefers forward and backward selection because they are better selection methods as opposed to stepwise. Bruce Ratner views stepwise selection as being far too narrow in yielding confidence and will not produce good results if used when the data has redundant predictors. This is opposed to forward and backward selection which are very efficient in such situations and many others (Bruce, 2011). Many other people do not share the same opinion as Bruce Ratner: many computer data analysts find stepwise selection to be very efficient and good to use. They prefer when the stepwise selection method is used in the algorithm of data analysis programs such as SAS and...

Variable costing

4 pages (1000 words)
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... OF CONTENTS Executive summary 2 Assumptions of marginal costing 3 Uses of marginal costing in short term decision making 3 Types of costing methods 4 Marginal costing absorption method 5 Advantages of Marginal Costing over Absorption Costing 6 Recommendation 7 Conclusion 7 Costing is one of the managerial accounting functions which needs a careful selection and evaluation of the effectiveness of every technique used by a firm. Despite the various methods of pricing a firm based on its industry should select the most effective method to the firm. Costing is the main function in every firm, the rational being every firm exists in its industry with the main aim as profit making. References 8 VARIABLE...

The Independent Variable and Dependent Variable

3 pages (750 words)
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Free

... Research The initial step of a research process is identifying a topic in line with the research Polonsky and Waller (3) identify a research as a detailed study undertaken to discover new information and reach a new understanding. The main significance of a research topic is in the defining of e path to assist in pursuing the truth about an idea of the subject on research (Hair et al. 3). The topic we identify in our case is the effect of various activities of British American Tobacco (B.A.T) on the health of Kenyan citizens. These activities could include cigarette manufacturing, advertisement of their products, marketing and promotions. In Kenya, B.A.T is one of the companies with the greatest...

Mock Variable

2 pages (500 words)

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... variable: Variables February 26, Mock variable: Variables The study, based on background knowledge of the role of leadership and leadership style (Graham, Ziegert, and Capitano, 2015; Aragon-Correa, Garcia-Morales, and Cordon-Pozo, 2007; Liden, Wayne, Liao, and Meuser, 2014), seeks to investigate effects of leadership style and leadership potential on productivity of sales consultants at AT&T. The hypothesis that difference in productivity level exist across different leadership types and leadership potentials of the consultants and their supervisors is tested. This section discuses the study’s variables and focuses on variable definition, variable measure, and descriptive statistics for the...

Variable Overhead Variance

2 pages (500 words)
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... Teva sandals a company which sells sandals for water sports has undertaken variance analysis to achieve the profits planned while controlling the manufacturing overheads spending. Hence,
1. Variable overhead analysis for spending and efficiency,
2. Meaning and possible causes of such variances,
3. Explanation to the management and
4. Conclusion is considered to arrive at a solution.
Variable overhead analysis for spending and efficiency
Variable overhead spending variance = (Actual Machine Hours x Flexible budget Rate/hour) - Actual resultant overhead.
Actual Machine Hours = 67,500 (given), Standard rate/ hour = $30 (given) &
Actual resultant overhead = $1,950,000 (given).
Variable overhead spending...

Variable and Fixed Costs

2 pages (500 words)

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... Margin Income ment Following is the contribution income ment of Herrested Company for the year ending December 31, In this income statement, all the variable costs are first deducted from total sales to get a contribution margin figure. After that, all the fixed expenses are then deducted from contribution margin figure to reach at the net income figure. In year 2011, Herrested Company earned contribution margin of $60 per unit or $480,000 in total with the net income of $180,000.
Herrested Company
Contribution Margin Income Statement
For the period ending December 31, 2011
per unit
No. of units sold
Total
Sales
250
8,000
2,000,000
Variable Cost
Direct Material
100
Direct Labor
50
...

Two-Variable Inequality

2 pages (500 words)

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... variable Inequalities Two variable Inequalities Introduction: Two variable inequalities de equations with two variables. The equations often take the form of ax + by = c, where a, b and c are real numbers and b and a represent values that cannot be zero simultaneously. This often presents a straight line and is thus a two variable linear inequality (Boyd, Laurent & Eric, 1994).
Problem: Ozark Furniture Company can obtain at most 3000 board feet of maple lumber for making its classic and modern maple rocking chairs. A classic maple rocker requires 15 board feet of maple, and a modern rocker requires 12 board feet of maple. Write an inequality that limits the possible number of maple rockers of e...

Variable pay scheme

2 pages (500 words)
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... Pay Programme By + Introduction Variable pay is bonuses rewarded to employees by employers for achieving certain set goals in an organization. This pay is given depending on individual or groups performance. Variable pay provides a tangible reward for employees and encourages them to work hard and more efficient. Variable pay is given in a number of way. It includes annual incentives, individual incentives, gaining shares, and payments for newly acquired knowledge and skills.
Variable pay in an organisation is used to motivate employees to perform effective in their line of work. This is a type of incentive to workers (Belcher, 2006).
In recent time variable cost should be critically understood be...

Full Costing and Variable Costing

8 pages (2000 words)
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... Costing and Variable Costing Contents Full Costing and Variable Costing Instructor 1 Date 1 Contents 2 Executive Summary 3 Main Findings 4 Direct Costs 5 Indirect Costs 6 Full Costing 6 Variable Costing 7 Summary of Full Costing and Variable Costing Components 8 Making a choice between the two 9 Conclusion and Recommendations 10 References 12 Accounting for Management, 2011. Advantages and Disadvantages of Absorption Costing System. [online] Available at < http://www.accountingformanagement.com/advantages_and_disadvantages_of_absorption_costing.htm > [Accessed 25 December 2011] 12 Charles T. Horngren, Srikant M. Datar, George Foster, 2007. Cost Accounting: A 12 Managerial Emphasis. 12th ed. Prentice ...

Fixed and Variable Costs

2 pages (500 words)

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... 3 DQ's Fixed cost is that cost that does not change significantly with the change in the level of activity. Examples of fixed cost include interest expense, salaries and expenses of the employees or executives, property taxes and insurance protection.
Variable cost is that cost that cost which changes with the change in the level of activity. For example if the company is producing more aero planes then more amount of raw material will be required to make the planes (Leslie 1993). Examples of variable cost include raw material, labor cost.
There are some costs which include both the fixed and variable element in it and are referred to as semi variable costs. Examples of semi variable costs include el...

Factor Analysis: Statistics Research

11 pages (2750 words)

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... Factor Analysis Introduction Multivariate analysis (MVA) is grounded on the arithmetic source of multivariate statistics that includes observation and analysis of statistical variable at an interval. Now design and analysis, the procedure is used to achieve trade studies in various dimensions by taking into account the properties of various variables on the reactions of importance.
Functions of multivariate analysis comprise of:
capability-based design
help to treat variable as an free variable
Analysis of Alternatives (AoA), where concepts are selected to meet customer needs
Analysis of ideas in respect to varying set-ups
Classification of decisive design drivers and correlations within categoriz...

Variable and Fixed Costs

2 pages (500 words)
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... head: VARIABLE AND FIXED COSTS Variable and Fixed Costs (Course Name)
29th November 2012
Variable and Fixed Costs
Absorption income statement entails the use of all costs by a manufacturing concern to produce the products. This implies that the prices of every unit produced by a firm include direct materials, direct labor, as well fixed and variable overheads. Key examples of costs that are covered under the absorption income statement include wages to salaries, overheads costs and the raw materials used in the production facility. On the other hand, variable income statement organizes costs incurred by business by their behavior. Additionally, it indicates the relationship existing between fixed cos...

Two-Variable Inequality

2 pages (500 words)

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... Module: Introduction Symbols less than or greater than are used to represent the inequality equation. It entails forming an equation derived from a given task and thereby using it to solve for mathematical problems. Inequality can be represented on the graph and used obtain solutions of the inequality. The required region must first be identified and shaded. The shaded part satisfies the equation of the inequality.
Problem solution
1. Problem 46
Maple rockers. Ozark Furniture Company can obtain at most 3000 board feet of maple lumber for making its classic and modern maple rocking chairs. A classic maple rocker requires 15 board feet of maple, and a modern rocker requires 12 board feet of maple. Writ...

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

2 pages (500 words)

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... and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Affiliation Bother the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) are statistical approaches used in the examination of a measure’s internal reliability. This paper looks at the two statistical approaches by comparing and contrasting them as they are used in the article "The Impact of Technostress on Role Stress and Productivity,” by Tarafdar, Nathan, & Ragu-Nathan, (2007). The paper describes the survey instrument, the measurement levels, the IVs and DVs nature, model’s assumptions, robust of each assumption, computations, the rotation, factors retained, as well as the instrument reliability, and validity among other aspects.
The ar...

Quantitative Communication Research Variable

2 pages (500 words)

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... Communication Research Variable I have chosen four different variables - Experience doing something, Logical appeals, Grade point average, and Interaction.
1. "Experience doing something"
Transformed to "experience in a particular business field" is an independent variable in the following hypothesis: "Speakers, who have ten or more years of experience in a particular business field, integrate parts of their previously conducted business-related speeches into the new texts more often than speakers who have less than ten years of experience in given field."
In the form of "experience delivering public speeches" it is a dependent variable in the statement: "Students, who took creative writing and rheto...

Variable and Fixed Costs

2 pages (500 words)

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... and Fixed Costs Part I Financial accounting mainly focuses on financial ments that distributed to financial analysis, lenders, stakeholders and others that are outside the company. On the other hand, financial accounting courses covers general principles of accounting that are generally acceptable. These are principles that must be followed in reporting a corporations’ past transaction results on its income statement, balance sheet, cash flows’ statement, and statements showing changes in the equity of shareholders. On the other hand, managerial accounting focuses on providing information that is essential and is found within the company so that the management of the company can use that information ...

Limiting Factor

6 pages (1500 words)
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... x product y product z £ per unit £ per unit £ per unit Standard costs Direct materials 200 480 360 Variable overhead 48 28 64 Rate per hour £
Hours per unit
Hours per unit
Hours per unit
Department A
10
28
16
30
Department B
12
8
6
10
Department C
8
16
8
30
Unit Costs:
product x
product y
product z
Direct materials
200
480
360
Total Labor £
£504.00
£296.00
£660.00
Variable overhead
£48.00
£28.00
£64.00
Total Unit Cost
£752.00
£804.00
£1,084.00
Original Production Budget
product x
product y
product z
Unit sales
15000
12000
12000
Selling Price per Unit £
840
880
1200
Contribution Margin
£88.00
£76.00
£116.00
Contribution Margin %
10.48%
8.64%
9.67%
Total Sales
£12,600,000.00
£10,560,000.00
£14,400,...

Variable and Fixed Costs slp

3 pages (750 words)

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... Income ments and Break-Even Points of Herrestand Company Contribution income ment For the period ended 31, 2011
Sales $2,000,000
Less Variable cost
Direct materials 800,000
Direct labor 400,000
Variable overhead 240,000
Variable selling and administrative 80,000 1,520,000
Contribution margin ...

Variable Costing and Samanta Shoes

1 pages (250 words)

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... Variable Costing and Samanta Shoes There are different types of costs that will explain the wide range of the shoe selling prices. Production costs are influenced by the range in the prices of materials. If the materials cost are high, the prices per pair will increase, therefore explaining the range in prices in the different shoe pairs.
Labor costs are directly proportional to production costs. Increase in the availability of workers will lead to a decrease in labor costs; hence production costs. Lower labor costs will lead to a decrease in shoe prices. The amount of labor will, therefore, influence the price of each pair explaining the disparity in shoe prices.
Transportation costs are directly pr...

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