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... Safety and Nuclear Accidents: Complex Systems or Protocol Failure? [ID Nuclear safety is a hot-button political, economic and engineering issue. Major failures like at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island harmed the reputation of the nuclear industry, and films like The China Syndrome underlined the dangers. Nuclear systems are complex, and complex systems break down in complex ways. No engineer can possibly be expected to anticipate every possible contingency and wear pattern: The world is just too complex for that. But reviewing major nuclear accidents, it is clear that engineering and protocol problems, not simple and unavoidable breakdowns, are most often to blame. This paper reviews basic nuclear...