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the final stage of an HIV infection in which the body is at high risk of acquiring opportunistic infections that ultimately lead to the death of the individual. Opportunistic infections are infections that are caused when the body’s defense mechanism fails to fight common pathogens ordinarily encountered by the body which it could otherwise done had it not been infected with HIV. A person infected with HIV is said to have progressed to AIDS if he develops one or more specific opportunistic infections or certain cancers (aids.gov, 2014). In addition, he should have a very low count of CD4 cells. Blood tests are performed to find out if the CD4 cell count is very low compared to the normal count that varies from 500 to 1500 cells per cubic milliliter of blood (nlm.nih.gov, 2013).
HIV is transmitted from person to person through sexual contact and blood. It is possible for the virus to spread through vaginal, oral and anal sex. Needle sharing and blood transfusions can transmit the virus through infected blood. The virus is also transferred from an infected pregnant mother to fetus through shared blood circulation. It can also be transmitted from an infected nursing mother to her breastfeeding baby. The virus is not spread through casual contact (such as hugging or touching), through mosquitos or by touching objects that were touched by an HIV infected person. The virus can only be transmitted by blood, vaginal secretions, semen and breast milk (nlm.nih.gov, 2013).
When a person is infected with HIV, he first experiences flu-like symptoms such as headache, fever, diarrhea, muscle stiffness, sore throat, muscle aches, swollen lymph glands, rashes, night sweats, mouth sores, and muscle aches (nlm.nih.gov, 2013). Some individuals do not present with any symptoms during the initial stages of infection. When the virus infects an individual, it takes over the CD4 T helper cells of body’s immune system and uses the T cell machinery to create its own copies, destroying
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The report contained text and figures that illustrated major trends in the health of Americans and a trend tables section that contains 148 detailed data tables. The discourse explored the death rates for HIV disease, a trend that is of personal interest and thereby, provided a brief written description of the HIV disease, the rationale for selection and the importance of evaluating the trend, in general.
Since the scourge of HIV/ AIDs emerged in 1986, cumulatively around 1.7 million people have died and more that 1.5 million children have been orphaned (Rotberg, 2007). Nigeria’s national HIV/ AIDs prevalence which was found to be 1.8% in 1991 rose to 3.8% in 1993, 5.4% in 1999, and remained almost constant at 5% by 2003, according to the country’s HIV/ AIDs sentinel survey, 2003 (Deji, Williams, & Deji, 2007).
This infection results to the destruction or impairment of the function of the immune system cells. With the progression of the infection, the patient’s immune system grows weaker. This creates room for vulnerability to infections. AIDS is said to be the highest stage of HIV infection since a person with HIV can take 10-15 years prior to the development of AIDS (World Health Organization, 2012).
Viruses are the tiniest of organisms and yet they have the power and strength to attack all other organisms including human, animals, plants, bacteria, etc. The viruses are almost hundred times smaller than a bacteria cell which themselves are quite tiny.
This paper is aimed at examining the list of top viruses that have proven deadly in the world today and even in the recent years. It also explains in brief the predisposing factors that favor the survival of these viruses, their effects in human bodies and the general effect of them in the world.
One of the most difficult constructs to change is sociological constructs. Because these constructs are oftentimes not the result of a single piece of misinterpreted information but rather a set of reinforced beliefs combined with misunderstood/misinterpreted or otherwise warped information, certain sociological perceptions can persist and pervade the definition of key terms for even longer than is necessitated for them to be proven false.
It has now been believed that HIV originated from monkeys because the simian immunodeficiency virus resembles the two types of HIV. That is HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-2 resembles the virus in white monkeys from western
10). An example of a health disparity is HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus. According to Holtz (2012), HIV is the tenth leading cause of diseases or injury worldwide. In lieu of this fact, this paper will then focus on HIV as a health disparity.
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