Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a practice that involves the cutting or mutilation of all or part of female genitalia, so as to be in conformity with certain cultural or religious beliefs. The origin of Female Genital Mutilation is not very clear but documents date the start…
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l such as doctors and midwives have performed the ritual, mostly for financial gain in countries including India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Somalia, Kenya, Sudan, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Mali, and Nigeria. It is also practiced among the immigrants in Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States of America (Kontoyannis and Katsetos, p.32). It is called mutilation because there is no medical reason to remove otherwise healthy and useful organs of the body (Kontoyannis and Katsetos, p.32). FGM is a procedure that has no health benefits on girls or woman, causes severe psychological and physiological problems and it is most practiced in Africa as a cultural ritual. Moreover, Elizabeth Bransfield in her case studies involving FGM in ‘Gender, Anthropology and Religion’ argues that it is a religious ritual and cultural issue. Yet, I argue that it is overlooked that the ritual has no medical reasons because the female body is adversely harmed.
Psychologically, the victim of FGM suffers a lot of pain during the procedure which is done mostly in unhygienic conditions and without anesthetic. Also, the removal of the clitoris is painful due to its having a lot of nerve endings. Injuries to the genital area could also leave scars on the victim’s body considering that the procedure is undertaken mostly unprofessionally, in poor lighting and at times in the bush. (Momoh, p.78). The thrashed, fearful and screaming victims could easily aggravate the injuries put on them by the operations of personnel who are not trained in handling medical cases. Lack of medical facilities could also result in dire consequences, including death in case of complications. Infections due to the use of unhygienic procedures is a common side effect that arises due to the use of unhygienic tools, dirty herbs or untested traditional medicines. Death and diverse medical conditions such as bacterial infections which result from the many underlying conditions under which FGM is done. When the
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This practice is performed by specific communities in the world, and varies from community to community. This paper explores the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Sudan, and focuses on different aspects of the practice, including it being an infringement on the human rights of women in the region.
ra”, infibulation “narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer labia, with or without removal of the clitoris” and other “all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g.
The term ‘female circumcision’ is commonly used by clinicians who work directly with women in the community, but the official documents and policy statements normally use another term: ‘female genital mutilation’ (FGM) or ‘female genital cutting’ (FGC). The term FGM was first used in one of the first international documents.
This paper advocates that Female genital mutilation should be banned because it affronts fundamental human rights to autonomy and protection from violence, and because it results to enduring negative mental, physical, and psychological effects. Parents of daughters are likely to support this paper’s opinion.
FGM is a normal procedure in the Maasai community and is based on religious and cultural beliefs such as maintaining marital infidelity (Barstow, 1999). Hall (2015) covers Kakenya’s life story in a media story, and the narration
Friends and neighbors describe her as being extremely frightened over the procedure (Guerin 1). She had even lost hope of having a good life after the procedure. The FGM is described as being rampant during the summer
According to the World Health Organization, there are four main types of female genitalia mutilation namely the clitoridectomy, excision, infibulation and other procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes (2012, par 5). The clitoridectomy is the “partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris)” (WHO, 2012, par 5).
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