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I need to analyze the effects that the historical framework of supervision has had on present-day instruction.
Glanz, in his analysis of historical school supervision, has identified seven notions of supervision, namely: inspection, efficiency, democratic, scientific, leadership, clinical and changing concepts. His point on inspection clearly supported the top-down bureaucratic schooling systems and thus was sure to be extinct soon (Boise State University, 2008).
Contrary to this hierarchical power structure, theorists of the twentieth century took a turn towards professionalism and progressivism. Schools by this time grew more complex due to urbanization and so the superintendents could not find the time to enter schools specifically for Glanz’s inspection role. This brought on the hiring of expert teachers or other supervisors. I believe this practice is still seen today where supervisors keep a certain level of check as to what and how teachers perform. The relationship is not necessarily positive, but can be recognized today (Boise State University, 2008).
The bureaucratic hierarchy led to teachers and supervisors being felt vulnerable. This must have given birth to democratic models in the 1920s. The democratic model of supervision worked alongside efficiency and scientific trends. It was John Dewey’s endorsement that democratic and scientific practices could co-exist and that the former was distinct from Glanz’s social efficiency model. This led to supervisors becoming instructors for teachers. Being in the schooling field, I myself have witnessed this in many cases. This theory proved to be an evolution to supervision due to the evening out of authority and democracy and hence bringing positivity in the teacher-supervisor relationship (Boise State University, 2008).
Clinical supervision emerged in the 1970s after tensions among the scientific, democratic and efficiency practices arose. The proposition of clinical
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