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the principal of accelerating electrons so as to create high energy beams that can be used to destroy any cancerous cells without affecting the other surrounding non- cancerous tissues. For shallow tissues, accelerated electrons were enough to treat them but for the deeper ones, the electrons beams have to be converted into X-ray photons.
The machine consisted of hardware and software that helped the machine run. The software also monitored the functionality status of the machine and turning on the beam. It was also responsible for turning off the beam and detecting any malfunctions.
The software was responsible for running most of the machine functions in conjunction with the hardware. This therefore means that any small bug in the software will lead to malfunctioning of the machine. The software for running the Therac-25 was not extensively tested before it was deployed for use. This was due failure to follow proper system development and implementation practices. Also the programmer didn’t provide enough documentation about the machine and software errors that could guide operators on when there is malfunction and what to do. The operators therefore were in the dark most of the time despite the machine displaying various error messages as they thought was normal.
The hardware that was used to measure the dosage always provided a wrong dosage reading when it as overloaded. Instead of providing a high reading instead it displayed a low reading when it was actually so high. Another defect was how the machine was made to be operated. The machine was made that the operator and the patient were to be in separate rooms to minimize effect of radiation to the operator. Therefore in case there was any overdose and the patient complaining, the operator could not hear it. Also the operator could not ascertain whether the patient was in the right position every time. This was risky and costly assumptions that lead to the occurrence of the accidents. Therefore, software
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(“The Therac-25 and Its Accident Investigation Case Study - 2”, n.d.)
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(The Therac-25 and Its Accident Investigation Case Study - 2)
“The Therac-25 and Its Accident Investigation Case Study - 2”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/design-technology/1620906-the-therac-25-and-its-accident-investigation.
He was the youngest child in a family of eight children and unfortunately, both his parents died when he was only seven years of age. From then on, Gilbert was brought up by his eldest sister. He managed to attend school but dropped out at age 14, just after completing his fifth grade.
The machine namely Therac-25 was manufactured by a Canadian company i.e. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in conjunction with a French company, CGR. The Therac-25 was an improvement of earlier machines i.e. Therac-6 and Therac-20. Compared with other earlier machines, this one was more compact, versatile and easier to use.
There were no formal criteria for testing and specifications for the software written anywhere. To add salt to injury, the machine’s software and system were barely tested. For the machine to have the safety standards claimed by the manufacturer’s engineers, it must have run for at least 100,000 years and any potential errors eliminated (Littlewood & Strigini 62).
A serious accident occurred at the warehouse. A maintenance engineer was crushed to death by a faulty forklift truck while working at a distribution centre. The safety switch on the truck had been deliberately disconnected, causing it to go out of control and crush Mr Mike Gavin, aged 28, as he tried to inspect it.
All such conditions presenting in to the Accident and Emergency would have representative patients with different age groups, consequently, the disease of presentation will have implications depending on physical and psychological milestones of the respective age range.
Thereafter the aircraft became almost uncontrollable. Passengers were alerted and the cockpit crew members were making frantic efforts to somehow keep the plane in a straighter direction. Despite best efforts, the airspeed and sink could not be accurately controlled.
In the state of Queensland alone it is estimated that 85 percent of all abused children suffered abuse from their natural parents in the year 2001 and 2002 (Child Protection Australia, 2002). The fact that the school
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This research tends to come up with analysis describing the happenings, while at the same time digging deeper to conclude which parties are mainly to blame. With reference to daily life routine that involves instances that expose one to accidents, as well as prior research, it is alleged that 96% of this accidents are because of unsafe human acts.
Some of them are fingerprints, evidence and trace examination, genetic fingerprints, ballistics and tool markings, blood evidence, forensic chemistry, autopsies, document examination, arson investigation, etc. A
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