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About chemistry - Essay Example

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Romans and Greek empires have brought the wine culture to Europe from the East, while Columbus brought it to the New World. Grapes have become a very…
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Download file to see previous pages This paper discusses the role of chemistry in wine making, particularly the chemical components carbohydrates and organic acids. The effect of temperature in the process of wine making will also be discussed.
CARBOHYDRATES . Sugars are a sub-class of carbohydrates. This molecules take the biggest role in the fermentation process because they are ones that turn into alcohol. Fructose and glucose are the sugars that are most important in wine making. There are sugars such as pentoses and pectins that are present in the juice that does not really contribute to the fermentation process, but gives the wine its hazy characteristics (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.).
ORGANIC ACIDS. Tartaric acid and malic acid are two of the principal acids found in grapes, and they are important molecules in grapes because they provide the acidity of the wine. The acids provide a pH range of about 3.2 - 3.3, which serves as a buffer system. Succinic acid is present in wine but not in the grape juice which implies that its formation occurs during the fermentation process. It is important that the acidity during wine making is at its optimum level to provide the best condition for fermentation. Because yeasts are living microorganisms, they are supposed to live at their most natural environment to be able to thrive well and properly work on the sugars in the juices. Grapes which are too sweet have high pH values resulting to less subtle wine flavors. To prevent this, pH of the juice prior to fermentation is checked, and if found to be high, tartaric acid is added before loading up the yeast (Uva, 2013).
TEMPERATURE. The temperature requirement in the manufacture of wine must not exceed 15.3ºC (60ºF) for white wines, and 29.4ºC (85ºF) for red wines. The conversion from sugar to alcohol with the evolution of carbon dioxide releases heat, so it is important that the temperature be always maintained. Low ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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