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The Physiological Effects of a Concussion on the Brain - Research Paper Example

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The physiological changes that affect the brain after a concussion are hypo or hyper perfusion of cerebral blood flow, scarce cerebral oxygenation which may lead to ischemia and cerebral metabolic dysfunction.
Traumatic brain injuries are disabling injuries which hinder a…
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The Physiological Effects of a Concussion on the Brain
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Download file to see previous pages On the basis of severity traumatic brain injury can be divided into mild, moderate and severe. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries are used to describe any injury in which the symptoms may or may not last. Neurologically a concussion is defined as an injury in which there is loss of consciousness for less than 30 minutes and post traumatic amnesia which lasts less than 24 hours. Concussions usually have good prognostic value as usually patient leads to full recovery. A concussion can cause pathophysiological changes to the brain in which there are metabolic and ionic processes due to the twisting of axons (Silver et al 3-6).
A concussion occurs due to mild trauma to the brain. The cascades of physiological events that occur are an injury which is followed by abrupt neuronal depolarization. The depolarization excites the neurotransmitters and causes their releases which in turn lead to ionic misbalance and disruption in glucose metabolism. Coupling of neurotransmitters that are excitatory like the coupling of glutamate and the receptor of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor results in additional depolarizing of the neuron with the ejection of potassium ions and inflow of calcium ions. This alteration in the balance of ions results in fluctuations in the physiology of the brain cells which may be acute or subacute. To counter the potassium-calcium misbalance, the pump of sodium and potassium starts to works with an increase need in ATP’s. This causes an increase in the glucose metabolism and ends in an energy crisis. Axonal twisting and stretching has proved to be the core pathology in the occurrence of a concussion. The metabolic events that occur post traumatically are uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism which results in energy emergency. Injection of calcium ions leads to impaired oxidative metabolism. Another physiological change affecting the motor functions of the brain is decreased ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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