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Applied Immunology Question 2 - Essay Example

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Autoimmunity is the malfunction that leads to a living being failing to recognize its parts as its own leading to immune responses directed towards its own tissues and cells (Adams and Knight, 2002). Any illness that results from such abnormal immune response is defined as an…
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Applied Immunology Essay Question 2
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Download file to see previous pages ty results from the collapse of the mechanisms of self-tolerance in T or B cells, which may lead to inequality between the control mechanisms and lymphocyte activation (Amagai and Matsushima, 2011).
Some of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune reactions include, defects in negative selection of T or B cells or receptor control in B cells during the maturation of these cells in the generative lymphoid organs (Baranzini, 2009). Other mechanisms that occasion autoimmunity include defective functions and numbers of regulatory T lymphocytes. There is also defective apoptosis of full-grown self-reactive lymphocytes, activation of APCs, which overcomes regulatory mechanisms and results in excessive T cell activation and insufficient function of inhibitory receptors. Different effector-mechanisms cause injury to the tissue in several autoimmune diseases. These mechanisms include immune complexes, autoreactive T lymphocytes and circulating autoantibodies.
Cultivating the immune system to make a distinction between the self and non-self is vital to ensure that the immune response is build up against foreign antigens and not against self. A breakdown in these mechanisms can directly lead to the onset of autoimmune disease (Chen, Daha and Kallenberg, 2010). The (human leukocyte antigen) together with molecules are vastly studied human genes including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte- associated four molecules (CTLA-4). Explicit mechanisms as mentioned so far lead to the medical outcomes of autoimmune diseases. The notion that the immune system is capable of detecting foreign antigens and self-antigens is now widely accepted.
There are mechanisms whereby the immune system is capable of mounting an immune reaction against foreign antigens, while maintaining immune lenience towards self-antigens (Eisenberg, 2003). These have been shown to be stimulated through the central tolerance in the peripheral and thymus tolerance in the secondary lymphoid tissues. Common pathogenic ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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