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Malignancy (Cellular Pathology) - Case Study Example

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Usually, staining (as performed in the image) helps to distinguish normal from cancerous tissue. From the image one can see that compared to the adipose tissue that appears…
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Malignancy (Cellular Pathology)
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Download file to see previous pages In addition, unlike the cancerous squamous cells which appear abnormal and distorted, normal squamous cells look smooth and regular. Deeper analysis focusing on the nucleus would have provided information that identifies and distinguishes normal from cancerous adipose tissue.
The malignant adipose tissue have large nucleus with irregular shape and size. In addition, the nucleoli are prominent; the cytoplasm is scarce and deeply colored or, on the opposite, is pale. The nucleus of malignant adipose tissue plays, through its alterations, a big role in the evaluation of malignancy. Changes are associated with the surface, structure and homogeneity, the nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, volume, as well as shape and density. Ultra-structural features are associated with changes in chromatin (e.g. reduction in heterochromatin and increase of perichromatin and interchromatin granules, formation of inclusions, and increase of nuclear membrane pores), invaginations, and nucleus segmentation.
The nucleus is characterized by its movement towards the membrane, hypertrophy, numerical increase, development of intranuclear and canalicular systems between the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane, and macro and micro-segregation. Mitoses are also a regular feature of malignant adipose tissue. Mitoses numerically increase, atypical mitosis forms with defects in the mitotic spindle develop, which produces dissymmetrical structures, triple or quadruple asters, and atypical forms of chromosomes. Nuclear changes justify genetic defects associated with these changes, and also explain the presence of different squamous cell clones. In malignant adipose tissue that are severely anaplastic, the presence of large nuclei and multinucleate squamous cells shows abnormal divisions (Hermans 2006, pg. 27). The morphological features discussed here symbolize the changes happening at metabolic level, with the augmentation of structures in regards to the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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