Cellular Respiration and Fermentation - Essay Example

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A cell always uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to supply their energy needs and so cellular respiration is a process in which energy in the glucose is…
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Download file to see previous pages nd aerobic respiration (Campebell 141).  Glycolysis produces two ATP and thirty-four more ATPs are produced by aerobic pathways if there is presence of oxygen. In absence of oxygen, fermentation reactions produce alcohol or lactic acid but not ATP (Campebell 142).
During vigorous exercises more oxygen is consumed faster than required. More ATP energy is supplied to muscles by the process of glycolysis resulting in build up of lactate in muscles (Campbell Neil A. 304). When lactate builds up blood pH drops and the muscles are fatigued. When at rest lactate gets converted back to pyruvate and oxygen debt is repaid. This is the reason why a person continues to breathe hard even after finishing a race or rapidly climbing fleet of stairs (Campbell Neil A. 304).
3. Oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain is carried out on the inner mitochondrial membrane (Strver 46). In absence of oxygen cellular respiration consists of only two metabolic pathways: glycolysis and fermentation both of which occurs in the cytosol (Strver 46).
Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (cytoplasm) and does not require oxygen. It is a process that includes a number of chemical reactions, each that require special enzymes to make it happen (Campbell Neil A. 147). During the third step of the process glucose gets converted to fructose. Fructose from organism’s food is put into the process and there are other ways to react chemically dietary sugars, lipids and proteins so that their energy can be recovered (Campbell Neil A. 146). All nutrients are used as fuel and act as building blocks. During the process glucose (C6) is broken down to two molecules of pyruvate (C3) (Strver 50).  This change is accompanied by a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) molecules. There are ten steps in glycolysis and each is catalyzed by a specific enzyme (Strver 51). Two ATP molecules are then used to phosphorylate and activate some compounds that are ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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