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Mitochondria, Chromosome, and Plant Structures - Assignment Example

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It contains two membranes that are made up of proteins and phospholipid bilayer. A mitochondrion is composed of five distinct compartments.
a) The outer mitochondrial membrane…
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Mitochondria, Chromosome, and Plant Structures
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Download file to see previous pages The outer membrane can fuse with Endoplasmic Reticulum to form Mitochondria associated ER- membrane that helps in calcium signaling and lipid transfer.
b) The intermembrane space is the region between the outer membrane and the inner membrane. Due to the permeability, of the outer membrane, the concentration of sugars and ions in the intermembrane space should be similar to that of the cytosol (Stansfield 89). The main function of this compartment is oxidative phosphorylation.
c) The inner membrane contains a lot of proteins that perform different function. It has a very high protein to phospholipid ratio of 3:1. The proteins in this compartment include ATP synthase that produces ATP in the matrix, transport proteins that control the passage of metabolites in and out of the matrix and those that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation.
d) The cristae are numerous compartments in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is studded with enzymes such as ATPsynthase and cytochromes (Stansfield 92). Their function is to expand the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane to facilitate for better production of ATP.
e) The matrix is a component of the mitochondria that is enclosed by the inner membrane. It contains most of protein in a mitochondrion. This compartment is important in the generation of ATP. There are numerous enzymes, mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial ribosomes contain in the matrix.
2) Chromosomes are well arranged structures of DNA and protein found in the cells of most living organisms. During the life of a cell, chromosomes elongate and are easily visible under a microscope. Before a cell divides through mitosis, each chromosome duplicates during the S phase of cell cycle.
a) On the onset of mitosis, the duplicate chromosomes condense into short structures called dyads. The chromatids condense to about 5 Um in the metaphase. The chromosomes assemble on the metaphase plate that is equidistant to the poles (Stansfield ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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