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Structure of the DNA and RNA - Essay Example

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This essay, Structure of the DNA and RNA, presents Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which can be defined as a nucleic acid containing genetic information responsible for the functioning of all living organisms. The DNA is a linear macromolecule found in all living organisms…
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Structure of the DNA and RNA
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"Structure of the DNA and RNA"

Download file to see previous pages From the discussion it is clear that the DNA sequence is composed of four types of DNA which are adenine A and Guanine G, Thymine T and Cytosine C. A sugar known as 2’-deoxy ribose is phosphorylated at its 5’hydroxyl group and free nucleotides have phosphates representing the mono-, di-, or triphosphate form of the nucleotide known as dGTP, dATP, dTTP and dCTP. This paper highlights that DNA does not exist in a single strand since it is not stable; it links with a second strand and intertwines to form a double helix structure. The bases are bonded to each other at the centre in a particular way whereby Adenine bond with thymine with 2H-bonds and Cytosine bond with Guanine with 3H-bonds. The linear geometry and rigidity of the H-bonds prevents the base pair formation since the plane lies perpendicular to the axis of the helix. Watson and Crick described the B-DNA as the physiological form of the double helix DNA. The sequence of bases in the polymer encodes the genetic information for protein synthesis. The real structure of the DNA, however, deviates slightly from the B form in a sequence dependent manner as well as depending on the interaction with DNA-binding proteins. A double helix has the minor and major grooves winding along the helix surface. In those grooves, parts of the ring structures of the purines and pyrimidines are exposed to the surface of the helix this is the site where most protein-DNA interactions occur. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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